Environmental Science Activities Manual: 3-5
|Earth and Space Science
||Geology/Earth Structure A2.00|| Process Of Science
||Analyzing 1.4 a
GRADE: ESAM: 3-5
CONTENT STANDARD: Earth and Space Science
CONTENT TOPIC: Geology/Earth Structure
CONCEPT: Rocks and soil move through a continuous cycle.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: A2.00 To understand the different kinds of soil
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
2.01 define soil.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
2.02 name the two layers of soil.
2.03 discuss the different kinds of soil.
I. Soil definition
A. Weathered rock
II. Layers of soil
B. Decayed plant
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Process Of Science
To enable students to demonstrate the process of science by posing questions and investigating phenomena through language, methods and instruments of science
ANALYZING - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships that may suggest cause and effect or support inferences and hypotheses.
TN STANDARD(S): The learner will understand that:
1.4a Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships.
BENCHMARK: Information is organized in ways that show possible relationships, similarities, or differences; examples: graphs, charts, tables, etc. Data extremes (highest/lowest values) may be more revealing than means or averages.
Two instructional periods
Sand, clay, loam, poster board, plastic sacks
Classroom Connector One
(Ask students this question:) What is soil? (Most will say dirt.) Display piles of three different types of soil- sand, clay, loam. Ask students if all three piles are soil. (response) Do all of these look the same? (no) Why not? (Different kinds come from different places.) (Tell students that they are going to learn the definition of soil and to identify three types of soil.)
(First Day: Define soil and identify layers.) Soil is a very important natural resource. Can you name some reasons why you could not live without soil? (Plants need soil to grow and people use plants for food.) How many things have you used today that were grown in the soil? (response)
Soil is made of many different kinds of matter. (Refer to three piles of soil and point out different kinds of matter.) Most soil is made of weathered rocks. This means the rock has been broken down- some pieces may be large, others may be as fine as dust. Soil also contains matter that was once living. The remains of dead plants and animals have become part of the soil.
(Use a soil profile to show the two layers of soil. The easiest way to get a soil profile is to use a shovel to cut out a square on the side of a road. Lay the profile on its side in a box. If a profile cannot be obtained, use a picture of a profile. Point to the top layer. Identify and label it as topsoil. Have students say this name together. What makes the topsoil so dark? Topsoil contains the decayed remains of plants and animals. This makes the soil good for growing plants. Topsoil is dark in color.)
Subsoil is below the topsoil. (Identify and label it as subsoil. Have students say this name together. The prefix sub- may be pointed out here as a means of helping students remember that is "below." Compare the color "Light brown, yellow, red" with the dark color of topsoil.) Look at materials found in each soil. Leaves and twigs are found in topsoil; rocks, sand, and clay are found in subsoil.
Bedrock is the layer of soil under the subsoil. It contains large pieces of rock. (Give students some time to compare the characteristics of each layer. Have students work with partners- each telling the other the name and characteristics of each layer of soil.)
(Have students draw a picture of a soil profile and color it. Label each layer and write the characteristics of each.)
The children can make a soil profile. They can follow these directions:
1. Get a tin can with both ends removed. The can will be used as a soil probe.
2. Push the can into the soil. In some areas the soil is hard, so push the can in with your feet.
3. Leave a small amount of the can exposed to pull it out of the soil.
4. Pull the can out of the soil. Then push the soil out of the can onto a piece of paper to observe the soil layers.
Classroom Connector Two
(Second Day: Identify three different kinds of soil. Review what soil is made of and the two layers of soil. Use the three piles of soil- sand, clay, loam. Ask if all three are soil. Tell students that today they are going to learn to identify three kinds of soil. Have students work in small groups. Each group must have a small sample of each kind of soil. Have these samples set up before you begin instruction. Ask students why they look different. Have students feel the three types and contrast the three. Label one pile as sandy. Put some of this soil in a plastic bag and attach it to a poster board with these characteristics of sandy soil written beneath label:
1. Sandy soils contain mostly sand.
Another pile of soil will be labeled as clay. Put a sample into a plastic bag and attach it to a poster board with these characteristics written beneath label:
2. Sandy soils do not hold water very well.
3. Most sand is small pieces of quartz.
The third type of soil is loam. Identify and label. Put sample in plastic bag and attach to poster board with these characteristics:
Have students write the three kinds of soil and their characteristics.)
Read orally sentences describing each kind of soil. Students respond by writing answer on paper.
Soil conservation Service can provide you with soil samples.
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time this file has been accessed since 04/15/2004.
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