Environmental Science Activities Manual: 3-5
|Earth and Space Science
||Geology/Earth Structure A3.00|| Process Of Science
||Collecting Data 1.3 b
GRADE: ESAM: 3-5
CONTENT STANDARD: Earth and Space Science
CONTENT TOPIC: Geology/Earth Structure
CONCEPT: Rocks and soil move through a continuous cycle.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: A3.00 To understand the various kinds of rocks and how they are formed
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
3.01 list the kinds of rocks.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
3.02 discuss the origin and the process of formation of different kinds of rocks.
I. Kinds of rocks
II. Formation of each kind
A. Igneous - fire-made or volcanic rocks
B. Sedimentary - organic layered materials acted on by heat and pressure
1. Fossils - imprints or skeletons of things that lived many years ago
C. Metamorphic - undergone change (example: marble)
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Process of Science
To enable students to demonstrate the processes of science by posing questions and investigating phenomena through langauage, methods and instruments of science.
1.3 COLLECTING DATA - The acquiring, recording, arranging and storing of information must be performed in a complete, accurate, concise and user-friendly manner.
TN STANDARD(S): The learner will understand that:
1.3b Data should be appropriate, accurate, and free of bias.
BENCHMARK: A journal should be kept describing observations made. Entries should distinguish actual observations about what was observed.
Rocks (Limestone, pumice, coal, granite, gneiss, sandstone, quartzite), 4 small jars, vinegar, 4 stoppers, 4 quart-size jars, 4 large trays with raised edges, 2 quarts of water, 1 pint of dirt, 1 pint of sand, 1 pint of gravel, construction paper
I want you to try to remember and think about the largest piece of rock you have ever seen. Tell your neighbor where it was. (pause) Today we are going to learn the three different kinds of rocks igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic - and how to tell the differences in each. Raise your hand if you have seen this type of rock (Ask as you hold up each different rock).
(Examples of the three different types of rocks should be in the classroom. All rocks should be labeled. Large words should be displayed on the chalkboard "igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic." Pictures for a bulletin board should be noticed. Safety precautions should be taken, such as droppers for vinegar put off-limits for the students. Trays for experiments should be available and arranged for six children to a group.)
MONITOR AND ADJUST:
(After giving a description, have the pupils hold up the word naming the rock. Example: A rock made of magma "Melted rock" that has cooled is igneous rock. Give an exact example name for each type:
1. Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock. It consists of plant and animal remains. (Show a piece of limestone and pass it around.) Tell the students that chalk is a type of limestone. Have you ever found any of this kind of rock? Where? (In my driveway, etc.) Some buildings are also built from limestone. Sandstones are another type of sedimentary rocks used in buildings.
Fossils are found in some types of sedimentary rocks. Fossils are any remains of ancient life. Some examples include shell prints, leaf prints, or animal tracks. Fossils give us evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago, and the nature of the environment at that time.
2. Pumice is an igneous rock. It was thrown into the air as lava from a volcano. It cooled so quickly that gases and steam left holes in it! Pass around a piece of pumice.
3. Slate is an example of a metamorphic rock. (Metamorphic rocks were formed when igneous and sedimentary rocks remained inside the earth and underwent some changes there. Pass around a piece of slate.) How can we know a specific rock is sedimentary or igneous or metamorphic? (response)
(In groups of 6) (Sedimentary - Place a tray containing a small container of vinegar, a stopper and a piece of limestone, coal and pumice on the worktable. Have the children take turns putting a few drops of vinegar on each rock. The limestone should bubble. Explain that you can see layers in sedimentary rocks. In a large jar 1/2 full of water, have one child put a handful of soil, another a handful of gravel, another a handful of sand. Another child can stir this with a spoon. The next day, observe how the sediments settled to the bottom.)
(Igneous - Explain that igneous rocks are those that are fire-made or volcanic rocks. They have small mineral pieces because they cooled quickly. Display trays of graphite so the students can see the large crystals in obsidian and explain that this looks like it contains pieces of glass. Remember it was formed as the magma reached the surface and cooled quickly, while with pumice you can explain that the gases did not have time to escape, so holes are left in it.)
(Metamorphic - Explain that metamorphic rocks are igneous and sedimentary rocks that have undergone change.)
(Display with labels on each:
Limestone (sedimentary) marble
Granite (igneous) .. Gneiss
Sandstone (sedimentary) .. quartzite)
(Discuss characteristics of each as to size, color, texture. Allow each child to hold each rock.)
(Provide each group with various rocks and allow them to sort them into labeled boxes.) In your science journal, draw a picture of one rock of each kind: igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary. Color it and write its name.
(State that West Tennessee has much limestone, which is our state rock, and ask what type rock it is. Ask how many children have seen the rock formations on the way to Nashville. These layers are sedimentary rocks. Suggest that the children bring rocks found at home to class. Review names and definitions by holding up examples.)
Magic School Bus: Inside the Earth, Joanna Cole
Charles Lyell (1794 - 1875) is known as the Father of Geology. He explored forests, extinct volcanoes, caverns, mountains, and dried up lake beds in Europe. He collected a variety of fossils. Modern geology is based on his findings.
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