GOAL: 55100 Understanding the practical application of various principles in physical science
CONTENT TOPIC: Energy/Light/Heat/Sound
CONCEPT: Sound travels by molecular motion.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 5C2.00 To understand the relation between vibrations and pitch
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
2.01 demonstrate how pitch is changed.
2.02 demonstrate how the amplitude of a sound may be changed.
2.03 recognize the change in a sound as a change in pitch or amplitude.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
I. Definition of pitch
A. High Pitch
B. Low Pitch
III. High - low pitches
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Process Of Science
To enable students to demonstrate the process of science
by posing questions and investigating phenomena through language, methods and instruments of science
1.1 OBSERVING - The senses are used to develop an awareness of an event or object and the properties thereof.
TN STANDARD(S): The learner will understand that:
1.1a Observing is a process used to develop an awareness of the surrounding environment.
BENCHMARK Awareness of our surroundings is a result of individual observations and prior knowledge.
1.1b The human senses and technological instruments are used to gather information from the environment.
BENCHMARK Information is gathered by using human senses and various
instruments such as magnifying lenses, microscopes, telescopes,
thermometers, scales, and balances.
TIME REQUIRED: One hour
Bicycle (optional); combs for entire class; pieces of small, thin, firm, cardboard; index cards; blank cassette tape, tape recorder
(If you have students at your school who ride bikes, then
you might want to do the set outside using an actual bicycle wheel.)
Today we will learn about how vibration of sound waves determines
if you will hear a high or low sound. We are going to use a bicycle
and a piece of cardboard to do this.
If we took a piece of cardboard and fastened it to a bicycle wheel so that it touched the spokes, when the bike was ridden fast, the cardboard would vibrate rapidly and we would hear a high pitch. The slower the bicycle wheel turned, the slower the cardboard would have vibrated and the pitch would have been lower. (Write PITCH on the board.) Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound. (Have students write this definition on an index card.) Different pitches are made by different vibrations. High pitched sounds are made by vibrations that go back and forth very quickly. Low pitched sounds are made by slower vibrations. If you want the sound to be louder, you add more force. To make a guitar louder, you would hit the strings harder. To make a piano louder, you would strike the keys harder. When you add more force to something that is vibrating, you have AMPLIFIED the sound. Loud sounds differ from soft sounds in their amplitude.
(Give each child an inexpensive pocket comb
and a thin, firm piece of cardboard. Hold the comb in one hand
and the cardboard in the other. Run the cardboard across the comb
- first slowly, then quickly.) When you rub the cardboard quickly,
how does it sound? (response) When you rub the cardboard slowly,
how does it sound? (response)
(Make a tape of a variety of sounds. Vary
the volume and pitch of each sound. Play the tape in class. Have
the students stand up if the pitch is high and get down on knees
if the pitch is low. )
I am going to use a variety of materials to make sounds.
I will make each sound, the second time I make the sound record
in your journal whether the pitch or amplitude was changed. Discuss
results as a class.
(Sing "Old MacDonald" or any familiar song
which you think the students will enjoy singing.
After singing it in the usual manner one time, try singing the song at a different pitch. Tell your class that when you raise your hand, it means to raise the pitch. If you lower your hand, this means lower the pitch. Record the song and play it back. Stress raising and lowering the pitch - not the volume.)
(Invite a group of musicians from the junior high or high school band to play for the class. Instruct the musicians to play pieces with a variety of pitches. Students sitting in the classroom audience can raise their arms up or down as they hear the pitch change. The group could also demonstrate change in volume or amplitude.)
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