CONCEPT: Humans have specialized systems responsible for body functioning.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 5G1.OO To understand the parts and functions of the body
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
1.01 identify different types of body cells.
1.02 describe the structure and function of each type of body cell.
1.03 define tissue and name body tissues.
1.04 define organ.
1.05 define organ systems.
1.06 define skeletal system.
1.07 define muscular system.
1.08 define the circulatory system.
1.09 label the major parts of the circulatory system.
1.10 trace the flow of blood through the body.
1.11 list the major parts of the respiratory system.
1.12 define the function of the respiratory system.
1.13 relate the movement of the diaphragm to breathing.
1.14 identify the major organs of the digestive system.
1.15 describe the function of each organ in the digestive system.
1.16 trace food as it passes through each organ in the digestive system.
1.17 identify the major organs of the excretory system.
1.18 explain the function of each organ of the excretory system.
1.19 explain the purpose of the nervous system.
1.20 name the three main parts of the nervous system.
1.21 describe the function of each part of the nervous system.
1.22 describe and relate how the nervous system allows one to notice and respond to everything in our environment.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
II. Body Tissue
A. Muscular System
B. Circulatory System
C. Respiratory System
D. Digestive System
E. Nervous System
F. Skeletal System
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Habits of Mind
To enable students to demonstrate ways of thinking and acting inherent on the practice of science; and to exhibit an awareness of the historical and cultural contributions to the enterprise of science.
3.3 ESTIMATION AND COMPUTATION - Scientists judge the level of precision needed to approximate a reasonable response and perform calculations with or without the aid of mechanical devices.
TN STANDARD(S): The learner will understand that:
3.3a Estimation provides a way to judge, if the result of a comparison is reasonable.
BENCHMARK Estimation provides a basis for evaluating the accuracy of computation.
3.3b Computation is the process of determining results by mathematical means.
BENCHMARK Mathematics allows for comparative evaluations which may lead to the solution of problems or a better understanding of both abstract or concrete concepts.
3.3c All measurements are approximations.
BENCHMARK Measurements such as length, area, volume, mass, time or temperature may be judged in accordance with accepted values.
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04.
Three to four instructional periods
Microscope, microscopic slides of different cell types (high school science teachers or hospital lab might have these) or filmstrip of cell types, samples of beef blood, Wright's blood stain, teacher made test, work sheets (teacher-made or printed)
(Have a picture of students playing softball or any other team sport.) What makes a good softball team? (response) Each player does his or her job well, and there is cooperation among the team members. What jobs do players do on a softball team? (response) How is the human body like a team? (response) Different parts do different jobs, and they all work together for a healthy body. Today class we will list the jobs of cells, tissue, organs, and organ systems, and how they cooperate with each other.
(Have prepared microscope slides of nerve, skin, blood, bone, and muscle cells.) Cells are the basic building blocks of the human body. Cells form tissue. (write on the board.) What are some different types of cells? (Nerve, skin, bone, blood, muscle) (List responses on the board.)
(Have prepared 35 mm slides of different types of cells or a filmstrip showing different types of cells. As students view the slide or filmstrip, discuss the structure of the cell and how it helps it to do its job. An example is that nerve cells have long fibers which can help them send and receive messages. Discuss where the cell would be located in different parts of the body.)
Tell your neighbor one type of cell and its function. (List responses on the board.) Ask different students to describe their cell structure.
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE AND/OR ENRICHMENT:
(Have a prepared microscopic slide of a sample of beef blood. Smear the blood on clean glass slide and stain it with right's blood stain. See high school chemistry teacher. Students observe the slides. Find out how many different kinds of blood cells there are in the sample. Invite to the class a medical technician who performs a variety of blood tests. Ask the visitor to show the equipment he/she uses and to explain the responsibilities the job entails. Assign library work to find the answers to how hair, fingernails, freckles, and warts are different from other skin cells. How do skin cells heal a cut?)
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.05.
(Select a body part, such as the hand. Ask the students to tell you all the different kinds of cells that make up their hands. List responses on the board.) Today class we will continue to learn how a group of cells work together to form tissues, how a group of tissues work together to form organs, and how a group of organs work together to form systems.
A group of cells which do one job are called tissue. Cells group together and form this tissue. (An example is that nerve cells form nerve tissues.) Name some different tissues of the body. (List responses on the board.
Different kinds of tissue working together to do one job form an organ. (Name some different organs of the body. (Lungs have skin tissue, muscle tissue, blood tissue, and nerve tissue. List responses on the board.)
Different kinds of organs work together to do the same job that make up a body system. What are some organs which make up each body system? (Respiratory system is made up of lungs, throat, nose, trachea.)
(Prepare a diagram work sheet of the body systems) Students label the organ system. (pause) Label the major organs in the system. (Allow students to use resource books for this activity.)
In this lesson we have learned that cells form tissues in our bodies and tissues form organs. Tell your neighbor one body system and the organs that make it up. (Ask specific review questions on each system.)
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE AND/OR ENRICHMENT:
Students prepare written reports on the systems of the human body. Have the students research the first heart transplant. Prepare a report on the purpose of the transplant, its successes and its failures. Invite a resource person in the classroom to further explain about the human body and how we should take care of it. Have students to trace an outline of the human body using wrapping paper and a volunteer. Draw in assigned body systems. An example would be the respiratory system drawn on the outlined body. Label its major parts.)
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.06.
Beef bones, poster of skeleton, x-rays
Today, we will learn about the support system of the body.
Bones make up the SKELETAL SYSTEM of the human body. The system of bones that supports and protects the body and organs inside is called the skeleton. Look at a poster of the skeleton. (Point out parts of the skeleton.)
Stand and touch your ribs, backbone, leg bone, etc. (Get x-rays from a doctors office.) Show the children the pictures of bones. Look at these beef bones. Saw one in half and observe.
Today, we have learned about the support system of the body. Tell your neighbor what it is called. (Skeletal system) What is it made of? (Bones)
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.07.
Poster or chart of the muscular system
Now, let's learn about the muscular system. How many of you walked to school today?
Stand. Sit. You have used some of the muscles of your muscular system.
You have more than 600 muscles in your body. Bones are able to move because muscles move them. There are two groups of muscles in your body. Muscles you can control are called VOLUNTARY muscles. Voluntary muscles are muscles you use to jump, sit down, run, or walk. INVOLUNTARY muscles are muscles that you cannot control. Place your hand over your heart. Your heart is an involuntary muscle. The intestines and stomach are also involuntary muscles.
Place your hand on your arm. Flex the muscles to contract and then relax.
Look at prepared slides of the different types of muscles: skeletal, smooth, heart.
Today, we have learned about a system in the body that enables us to move. Tell your neighbor what it is called. (Muscular system) What is it made up of? (Muscles)
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.08, 1.09, and 1.10.
Observing, interpreting pictures, labeling diagrams, reading for details, describing, sequencing
One instructional period
Reference books, markers, poster board, wall chart of circulatory system
Put your hand on your wrist, like this. (Demonstrate by putting the fingers of your right hand on the edge of your left wrist.) What is the beat you feel? (Pulse) It is your own blood being pumped through your body. Why do you feel these pulse beats? (response) The beat you feel in your wrist is due to the contractions of your heart. Today we will study how blood is pumped to every part of our body.
The circulatory system transports materials such as water and oxygen to the body cells and removes waste. The whole point of taking food into your body is to supply matter and energy to each cell.
Probably the most familiar organ of this system is your heart. Your blood is a vital part of the circulatory system as are the blood vessels.
Arteries are the blood vessels that take blood away from the heart. Each time your heart beats, blood rushes through these arteries taking oxygen and dissolved foods into the cells.
Arteries divide and branch out in our bodies like branches of a tree they eventually become as thin as a single cell. At this point they are called capillaries.
As the capillaries continue on, they become thick again and now they are called veins. Veins are the blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. When the blood arrives back at the heart, it empties into the part of the heart that is meant to receive it. Then the blood is pushed out into a great artery to the lungs. With increased physical activity the blood flow and pulse rate is increased.
(Provide a picture of the circulatory system for students to draw. Use a different color for the heart, veins and arteries.)
Today we have learned about the circulatory system. On your paper write the answers to these questions:
1. What are the three major parts of the circulatory system? (Heart, blood, vessels)
2. What are the three types of blood vessels in the body? (Arteries, veins, capillaries)
Now, with a partner, count the number of pulse beats per minute and record them. Before you begin exercising, estimate the number of pulse beats there will be after one minute of exercise. Run in place for 1 minute then count the number of pulse beats per minute. Finally compare actual beats per minute to estimated beats per minute.
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.11, 1.12, and 1.13.
Observing, reading to find answers to questions, reading for details, labeling diagrams, drawing conclusions
Three 50 minute instructional periods
Wall chart of respiratory system, watch with a second hand for each group, low powered microscope, several microscopic slides
Today we will learn about the respiratory system.
Your respiratory system consists of the nasal cavity, the mouth, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs and diaphragm. The respiratory system provides oxygen from the air for cells to change food into energy. Air enters your lungs when you inhale. You breathe in by lifting your ribs and contracting your diaphragm. The DIAPHRAGM is a sheet of muscles across the bottom of the chest cavity. Air passes through your NOSE. It passes from the back of the NOSE and MOUTH to the TRACHEA. The trachea is a tube that leads into the chest cavity and divides to form the BRONCHIAL TUBES. Most of the time the trachea is open and air passes freely in and out of the lungs. But when we swallow a flap of cartilage, called the epiglottis, closes over the trachea so that food can't enter. We have said that humans inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. The organ where this exchange of gases takes place is called the ALVEOLI membranes.
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Estimate how many times you breathe in a minute.
2. Use a watch with a second hand to determine how many breaths you take in one minute. Repeat this twice. Then figure your average breaths per minute. Chart the averages. Exercise for 30 seconds and then count your breaths per minute.
3. Make a model of the respiratory system. Use a ball jar as the chest cavity, balloons for the lungs fastened to a glass tube for the bronchial tubes, and a rubber sheet fastened to the open end of the ball jar for a diaphragm. Air moves in and out of the balloon as the diaphragm moves up and down.)
Today we have studied the respiratory system. List on your paper the major parts of the respiratory system. (Nasal cavity, mouth, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchial tube, lungs and diaphragm)
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.14, 1.15, and 1.16.
Soda crackers, salt, teaspoon, water, filter, wall chart of digestive system, clear plastic bag, bread, canned fruits, cheese, other foods may also be selected
Today students we will learn about the digestive system.
(The following activities are suggested)
1. Pass out an unsalted cracker to each student.) Take a bite of your cracker. Does the cracker taste different as you chew it? (response) How? (response) It becomes sweet. What happens to the cracker in your mouth? (response) Teeth break the cracker up, tongue helps to break it up more, saliva moistens it. Digestion begins in the mouth. Digestion is the process of breaking down food into substances that dissolve in water.
2. (Salt, teaspoon, water, filter) Mix a teaspoon of salt in 1/2 cup of water and stir well. Pour saltwater through filter. Pass filter around to show students that no salt remains. Why is it important that food substances in your body be dissolved? (response) So that food substances can pass through the cell membranes into the cells and then into the bloodstream.
3. (Wall chart of digestive system) Students, name the major organs of the digestive system: (Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Discuss the location and shape of each organ. Use wall chart.) Students, draw and label the digestive system using our chart. We will discuss the function of each organ as food passes through the organ in the digestive system. Salivary glands, in the mouth, secrete saliva, which breaks down the starch. Our tongue and teeth helps in the digestive process. When we swallow, our food passes through a tube from our mouth to stomach called the esophagus. It takes 6 seconds for swallowed food to reach our stomach. Digestion continues in the stomach. Stomach muscles squeeze the food. Digestive juices break the food down more. The digestive juices break down proteins. Food in the stomach stays there 2-5 hours.
4. (Clear plastic bag, moderate amount of bread, canned fruits, cheese, etc. Fill the bag with the food and tie a knot in the top of the bag. Have students knead the bag to show the churning action of the stomach.) The stomach pushes small amounts of food into small intestine where most of the digestion continues. Discuss the length of the small and large intestine. (Locate small intestine on chart.) Food stays in small intestine 2 or 3 more hours. Intestinal juices break down more carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Digestive juices secreted by liver and pancreas (Locate on wall chart) break down food substances still further. Food digestion ends in small intestine. Digested food passes through membranes (Capillaries) of small intestine and into the blood stream. Then it is taken to all the cells of the body. Dissolved food passes through cell membranes into the cells.
In this lesson, we have studied the parts and the functions of the digestive system. Write review questions about the digestive systems and the digestive process for us to answer in class. (Divide the class into groups) I am going to give each group a ball of yarn. Measure a piece of yarn that is the exact length of the small intestine and then do the same for the large intestine. We will then compare each group's results.
(Students keep track of what they eat for three days. Write reports on the nutritional values of foods they ate. Construct a model of the digestive system, using different colors for each organ.)
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.17, and 1.18.
Listening, observing, labeling diagrams, describing, reading for details, drawing conclusions
Wall chart of excretory system, film or filmstrip of excretory system, projector, screen
In our science lessons, we have been studying different systems in our bodies. Today, we will discuss the excretory system.
The major organs of the excretory system are the kidneys, the urinary bladder, the ureters, the urethra, the sweat glands and the pores. The kidneys remove most of the extra water and cell wastes from your blood. The urinary bladder is the organ near the kidneys that holds urine. The tube that connects each kidney with the urinary bladder. The urethra is the tube from which urine leaves the bladder. The sweat glands are located in the skin. They remove extra water, salt and other wastes from the blood. Wastes leave the body through pores in the skin.
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Use a wall chart, film or filmstrip to show the parts of the excretory system.
2. Have students draw and label the excretory system.
3. Discuss the function of each organ of the excretory system.
4 Match the organs with their functions.)
The excretory system aids in ridding our bodies of excess body fluids. Tell your neighbor the major organs of the excretory system. (Kidney, urinary bladder, ureters, urethra, sweat glands, pores)
This Classroom Connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, and 1.22.
Pinch your arm. Raise your hand if you can explain what happened. (response) Today we are going to talk about the nervous system.
Your nervous system does three things to make possible many simple and complex reactions. The nervous system detects or makes you aware of things around you. It carries impulses from your sense organ to your brain and interprets the impulse. Your body responds to a change or a stimulus in the environment. The three main parts of the nervous system are the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The brain and the spinal cord constitute the central nervous system. The brain is made up of three main parts. The cerebrum is the front lobe of the brain It is the largest area and looks like a walnut. It controls your thought processes, memory, and learning. The cerebellum is the size of a pear. It controls muscular activity and coordinates your balance. The medulla controls automatic activities, breathing, and heart action.
The brain sends and receives impulses by way of the spinal cord. The spinal cord extends from the medulla to almost the base of your spine. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves branching off from the spinal cord. This nerve fiber network is called the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system sends and receives impulses along the peripheral nervous system. The word nerve is also called neuron. A stimulus reaches the spinal cord or brain by means of a sensory neuron. This carries impulses from the sense organs. The nerve impulses traveling back to a muscle or gland is carried by a motor neuron. Sensory and motor neurons are connected by an associative neuron. Your brain and spinal cord are made up of associative neurons.
A stimulus always causes a response. Reflex acts can occur without thinking and without involving the brain. Examples of this are blinking, swallowing or withdrawing a part of your body from a painful stimulus. Receptors are those parts of the nervous system that detect stimuli. Receptors are in sense organs such as taste buds, eyes, ears, nose, and skin. When the nerves receive a stimulus, impulses are produced. Effectors are the parts that respond when stimulated by nerve impulses. Muscles and glands are examples of effectors.
(Reflex Act) Set down and cross your legs so that one leg swings freely. Using the side of his or her hand let your partner strike the soft area below the kneecap of your free leg. What happens to your leg? (response) What is the stimulus? (response) What is the response? (response)
Hold a sheet of plastic wrap in front of your face. Watch as your partner tosses a cotton ball at the sheet of plastic. Try to keep from blinking. Are you able to keep from blinking when the cotton ball is thrown? (response) What is the advantage of a blinking reflex? (response) Reverse roles with your partner.
Move the non-writing end of a pencil lightly over the skin on your arm. What words would you choose to describe how it feels? (response) Now, press into the same area a little harder and repeat the first step. Do not press too hard. You want to touch pressure receptors, not pain receptors. Describe how this movement feels compared with the first movement in the first steps. (response)
Draw, label, and color the three neurons: associative, sensory, and motor. (pause) (Also have the students to diagram the path of a reflex impulse.)
Form a circle. One of you (pick a student) time the exercises with a stop watch held in the right hand. Time keeper will start the exercise by saying "go" then starting the stop watch. Student on the right passes a signal around the circle by a hand squeeze. When the signal reaches the time keepers left hand then the stop watch is stopped. (Record the class reaction time on a chart.) We will repeat this two or three times. (pause) Let's repeat the exercise again while playing a song. (pause) Repeat the exercise with a fast song. We will chart the reaction time and compare the findings. (pause)
What are the general functions of the nervous system? (To detect and make us aware of our environment. Carries impulses to brain. Your body responds to these impulses.) Now by looking at our chart, record in your journal which situation enhanced reaction time and in your opinion why this turned out this way.
Trace the path of these messages or nerve impulses through the nervous system.
1. Someone steps on your toe. (You will withdraw your toe.)
2. You walk along and see a can. (You kick it.)
3. You ate too much. (Your stomach hurts.)
4. You plan an investigation. (You write it down.)
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