CONCEPT: There are diseases associated with each system of the body.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 5G2.00 To understand diseases associated with the body systems
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
2.01 identify the most common diseases of the circulatory system.
2.02 list preventive measures for the diseases of the circulatory system.
2.03 list the major diseases of the respiratory system.
2.04 name the most common diseases of the digestive system.
2.05 list some preventive measures of diseases of the digestive system.
2.06 list the major diseases of the nervous system.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
I. Circulatory System
II. Respiratory System
III. Digestive System
IV. Other Diseases
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Science In Society
To enable students to demonstrate attitudes toward science in solving problems and making personal decisions about issues affecting the individual, society, and the environment.
4.1 ATTITUDES - The progress of science and the attitudes of society influence one another.
TN STANDARD(S): The learner will understand that:
4.1a Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern.
BENCHMARK: Science provides a basis for addressing issues that affect our lives.
4.1b Science and technology should be viewed thoughtfully, in neither a categorically antagonistic or an uncritically positive manner.
BENCHMARK: Science does not create nor can it solve all of our problems.
4.1c The perceived value of any technology may vary for different groups of people and at different times.
BENCHMARK: The extent to which technology is applied determines the value placed upon that technology.
4.1d Beliefs, superstitions and fears can limit the progress of science and technology.
BENCHMARK: The extent and direction of scientific research may be limited by real and perceived concerns.
Classroom Connectors One, Two, and Three - 50 minutes each; Classroom Connectors Four, and Five - 45 minutes each
Classroom Connector One
Today students we will identify diseases of the circulatory system and discuss ways to prevent these diseases.
(Have students write to Public Health Department for pamphlets on disease of the circulatory system. Diseases of particular interest might be sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, leukemia, cancer, varicose veins.) In class discussion, discuss the different diseases in the pamphlets. List the diseases on the chalkboard. In class discussion, students list orally and discuss common problems of the circulatory system. List problems on chalkboard and how these problems can be prevented or treated. Some responses might
be balanced diet and exercise, medical check-ups, adequate sleep, and proper medication.
(Have student prepare a two-minute oral
report on one of the circulatory diseases. Discuss in more specific
detail the disease.)
(Set up a filmstrip and projector on diseases of the circulatory system. Prepare a work sheet of review questions about the film.)
Today we learned about diseases of the circulatory system. Tell your neighbor two diseases of the circulatory system. Discuss how science and technology has improved our chances to avoid these
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE AND/OR ENRICHMENT:
(Invite a medical person to the classroom to discuss CPR, how to properly administer CPR, when it would be necessary to use it.)
Classroom Connector Two
Today students we will identify diseases of the respiratory
system and then we will discuss how these diseases can be prevented.
(Hold a class discussion on the common diseases of the respiratory system. Make a list on the board. Asthma, Bronchitis, Hay Fever, Cancer of the lungs, Pneumonia, Strep throat, Laryngitis, Cold and Flu. Explain the symptoms of these diseases and how they affect the body. List ways to prevent or treat these diseases.)
(Have students select one of the respiratory diseases and do library research on it. Prepare and present a 2-minute oral report to the class.)
(Divide the class into small groups and have each group write a report about one of the major diseases and how to prevent it.)
In this lesson, we learned about diseases of the respiratory system. List the diseases of the respiratory system and their preventive measures on a sheet of paper. Compare your list with your neighbor's list. Now list these in order of the degree to which science and technology can control them.
INDEPENDENT PRACTlCE AND/OR ENRICHMENT:
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Contact American Cancer Society for information related to smoking and respiratory diseases.
2. Invite a nurse to the class to demonstrate CPR.
3. Show a film on smoking and have students discuss the adverse affects of smoking.)
Classroom Connector Three
Today we will learn about diseases of the digestive system and how to use the preventive measures for each of these diseases.
(Show the slides/filmstrips of different diseases of the digestive system. Examples are ulcers, cancer, beriberi, scurvy, and well as other digestive diseases. Discuss important points in the slide/filmstrip. List diseases on board. Discuss ways to prevent these diseases. List responses on the board. Examples are well-balanced diet, regular elimination of waste, and responding quickly by seeking the help of a doctor when you experience unusual pains in the stomach or other related organs of the digestive system.)
Today we have discussed some of the diseases characteristic of the digestive system. Tell your neighbor three common diseases of the digestive system. (pause, then summarize) Tell your neighbor three measures which might be used to prevent diseases of the digestive system.(pause, then summarize)
(To half of the class) I am going to hand you a sheet which lists the digestive diseases and the rate of occurrence in the U.S. If you were given 1 million dollars to spend toward research, how would you divide it up between these diseases? (Report results)
(To the other half of the class) I am going to hand you a sheet which lists the digestive diseases. If you were given 1 million dollars to spend toward research, how would you divide it up between these diseases? (Report results) (Compare results)
(Use library sources to research further the diseases and the preventive measures of these diseases.)
Classroom Connector Four
Here is a wall chart of the endocrine system. Today we will discuss this system and some diseases associated with it.
Our cells get their energy indirectly from the oxidation of glucose. Enzymes help control this process. The hormone, INSULIN is also essential for this. A hormone is a substance that is secreted by a gland directly into the blood stream and affects another part of the body. Glands that secrete hormones are called endocrine glands and these glands make up the endocrine system.
The main glands of the endocrine system are the pituitary which controls growth and regulates sex organs; the thyroid which regulates the use of food in the body cells; the parathyroid which controls the balance of calcium in the body; the adrenal which helps the body in time of emergency and controls salt balance; the pancreas which controls the amount of sugar in the blood; the ovaries which control female characteristics; and the testes which control male characteristics.
Diabetes is one of the diseases of the endocrine system. This disease results if insulin is not present or is not used by the body. Other diseases are caused by an overactive or underactive pituitary gland. Goiters are caused by a malfunction of the thyroid gland.
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Prepare a written report on a specific disease of the endocrine system.
2. Discuss the major diseases of the endocrine system. Invite a doctor or a nurse as a resource person.
3. Collect information on diseases of the endocrine system from the Public Health Department.)
On a sheet of paper, pituitary gland, malfunctioning thyroid) main diseases of the endocrine system. (Diabetes, over active)
Classroom Connector Five
What is the first thing you might do if a mosquito landed on your arm? (Swat it, slap it, shoo it away) Would you think about it a long time or would you do it without thinking? (response) If you did something without thinking, you acted on impulse. Today we will discuss our nervous system which sends impulses constantly to different parts of the body, and some diseases of the nervous system.
Your nervous system is made up of your brain, spinal cord and nerves. The nervous system provides communication between cells so the cells work together properly. The nervous system also coordinates our activities. It allows each part of the body to do exactly what it should do at exactly the right moment.
If something happened to our central nervous system we would not be able to make our bodies behave as we would like them to. Accidents often cause damage to the nervous system.
Disease can also cause distress to the central nervous system. Some diseases are multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease and more recently associated with several former San Francisco 49ers' football team members) and Parkinson's disease.
These diseases cause weakening of the muscles. In sclerosis, this leads to paralysis. In Parkinson's disease, it leads to a shaking of the head, hands and a peculiar gait.
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Hold a class discussion on the major diseases of the nervous system. A doctor or a nurse can be invited as a resource person.
2. Use films or filmstrips which show diseases of the nervous system.)
Today we have discussed diseases of the nervous system. Tell your neighbor two diseases that are related to the nervous system. (pause, the summarize)
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