CONTENT TOPIC: Space Science
CONCEPT: Day and night result from shadows produced by the earth's rotation.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 1J2.00 To understand how shadows are created
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
2.01 show how shadows are produced.
2.02 look for and identify shadows.
2.03 observe shadows produced from different sources.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
I. Defining shadows
II. Recognizing shadows
III. Producing shadows with different sources of light
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Habits of Mind
To enable students to demonstrate ways of thinking and acting inherent on the practice of science; and to exhibit an awareness of the historical and cultural contributions to the enterprise of science.
3.2 ASSUMPTIONS - The recognition and the criticism of the validity of an argument through presentation of data and differentiation between fact and assumption in the preparation of an explanation for a natural phenomenon are vital parts of the scientific process.
The learner will understand that:
3.2c The critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning must be made explicit so that the validity of the position taken can be judged.
BENCHMARKClaims of findings made during scientific investigation must be supported with evidence to ensure logical argument.
3.2d The validity of an investigation cannot be accepted unless the complete investigation can be independently duplicated.
BENCHMARK If variables remain constant an investigation can be repeated with expectations of predictable results.
White and black construction paper, drawing paper, opaque projector, shadow pictures
"About Shadows," from the series "Let's Ask Mr. Wonder, Coronet
Why is it darker under a shade tree? (response) What is shade? (response) Today we are going to discuss how shadows are made.
Shadows are made when light is blocked. I will turn on the projector. The light from the projector will shine on the screen. All we see is light. What will happen if I put my hand in front of the projector? (response) Let's see what does happen. (Make shadow puppets with your hands.) Can a piece of glass make a shadow? (Yes, but not a very good one) Can a piece of construction paper make a shadow? (Yes) Can light go through a piece of glass? (Yes) Can light go through a piece of construction paper? (No) If light can go through an object, that object will not make a very good shadow. (Hold up several different kinds of objects to demonstrate the kinds of shadows that they make. Note that the transparent objects do not make shadows as good as solid objects.)
(Set up opaque projector. Have a child sit in front of its light to form a silhouette.) We will use the opaque projector to allow each of you to make a shadow of your head. After I have drawn your shadow we will label it, then we will see if we can identify each person's silhouette. A silhouette is a shadow that is caused by your head blocking the light. What is a silhouette? (response) Yes, a silhouette is a shadow that is caused by your head blocking light.
MONITOR AND ADJUST:
(The teacher will have each student to recite the poem, "My Little Shadow." I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me, etc.. Have each student follow one student and copy every action that student makes. The students who are copying the motion will be the shadows.)
(The teacher will ask each student to look around the room for other shadows. Then list them on the board.)
Little or no light passes through an object when a shadow is produced. What must always be present for us to have a shadow? (Light) Is light present in your silhouette? (response) We make shadows when we block light. Tell your neighbor one object that makes a good shadow. (pause, and summarize)
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE AND/OR ENRICHMENT:
(Each student will draw a self-portrait and shadow. The class can go outside on a sunny day and play with their shadow and the shadow of a friend. Reinforce the fact that a shadow does what the person does. Also, reinforce the idea that something must be between the shadow and the sun for there to be a shadow. Encourage them to include land, water and clouds in the pictures.)
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