|Physical Science||Energy/Light/Heat/Sound 4C2.00||Unifying Concepts of Science||Scale and Model 2.5 b|
CONTENT STANDARD: Physical Science
CONTENT TOPIC: Energy/Light/Heat/Sound
CONCEPT: Sound, heat, and light have many properties.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 4C2.00 To understand the properties of heat
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Unifying Concepts of Science
BENCHMARK: Changes can occur slowly or quickly within any system.
Classroom Connector One
Activity One: Fill one small jar with cold water and one jar with very hot water. Put two drops of food coloring in each container of water. Observe. What happened to the hot water? (As matter is heated, the particles move faster.)
Activity Two: The measure of the speed of particles is called temperature. It is measured in degrees by using a what? (thermometer) Use a thermometer to find the temperature of a bowl of cold tap water, hot tap water, crushed ice and boiling water. Record and discuss the temperature differences.
Have you ever reached for a spoon resting in a pot only to find it too hot to hold? What do you need to take something hot from the oven? Why do we use pot holders and hot pads? (good insulators/poor conductors) Heat moves through solids by conduction.
Teacher Demonstrations for Conduction:
Experiment I: (Foreword: please keep in mind that use of open flame in a classroom must be carefully controlled.) Use a heavy candle in a holder. You light the large candle, then, light the small candle in the flame of the big candle. Drop spots of the melted wax from the small candle onto the large nail making a row of wax. Use the clothespin to hold the end of the nail in the flame of the large candle. Observe what happens. What does this tell us about how heat travels? Observation - Heat travels through a solid. The movement of heat through a solid is conduction.
Experiment II: Cut two squares and one rectangle from aluminum foil. Fold the rectangle into a thin strip. Fold one square into a triangle. Light a secured candle. Hold the candle over the aluminum. Allow drops of wax to fall at each corner of the square and each corner of the triangle. Allow wax drops to fall along the thin strip of aluminum. Allow the drops to harden. Heat the end of the strip of aluminum. You will notice that the wax drops melted more quickly than on the nail. Pinch the edge of the square with a clothespin and hold it over the flame. The wax at all corners of the triangle also melted at nearly the same time. Observation - The heat travels outward in all directions through a metal-like aluminum. Aluminum is an excellent conductor. Metals are good conductors.
Other materials that heat cannot move through easily are called insulators.
Make chart/graph to show the results (temperature differences).
Activity Three: After 30 minutes, unwrap jars and record new temperatures. Which group/jar/materials were the best insulators? (response) The poorest? (response)
Stretch a balloon over the soda bottle. Heat the aluminum pie pan of water over the hot plate. Place the bottle in the pan of water for a few minutes and allow it to heat. Observe what happens. Students will then explain what they see. Predict what will happen after the bottle cools again. Remind students that the seemingly empty bottle contains air. It is the expansion of this air as it heats that causes the balloon to expand. The movement of heat through the air is by convection.)
2. Invite a representative from a building supply company to talk to the class about materials and techniques used to insulate homes. Display insulation samples.
3. Research solar heat.
Classroom Connector Two
Friction is an action that slows down or stops motion - a force rubbing against another force to slow down an action. A good example of friction slowing down motion is applying brakes to your bike. The brake rubs against the tire causing it to slow down. Let's take a few minutes to brainstorm about times you have seen motion slowed down or stopped. (Cars, skating, skiing, sledding, running, sliding, shuffleboard. Write the responses on the board.) When there is no friction, things move along with no resistance. We will use a cardboard slide and roll objects down it. (Rock, ball, car, etc.)
Now, I will rough one side up with sandpaper and roll same objects down it. (Students will observe that friction slowed these down. You may want to use stop watch.) What can we conclude from this? (Rougher surface - the more friction) Why can't buses come on the roads to school when it snows? (Too icy-slick) What does the road department do to help this? (Sprinkle sand and salt) Why? (Friction) New shoes rub blisters. What alleviates this? (Powder, lotion) Why? (Lessens friction) (Sprinkle powder on floor let them experiment with sliding on floor without shoes, with tennis shoes and with powder on shoes.)
We have said that friction is caused when two material surfaces are rubbed together. Something else also happens when two materials are rubbed together. Rub your hands together. How do they feel? (Warmer) Yes, friction produces heat. Put this lotion on your hands. (Pass lotion around.) What happens? (Hands slide more easily.) Yes, the lotion reduced the friction.
2. Ask children to relate when/how they have received a scrape. (Ex. slide across basketball court, sliding to bases - in baseball. These scrapes are called burns. Friction caused heat and burns or
3. On the slide on the playground, is it easier with clothes or bare skin? (Clothes) At the swimming pool, if you put water on the slide, will you go down more quickly? (Yes)
4. Have students cut out or draw pictures of things which need to be lubricated to decrease friction.)
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