|Earth and Space Science||Oceanography 4M4.00||Unifying Concepts of Science||Scale and Model 2.1 b|
Sponsored by the National Science Foundation
CONTENT STANDARDS: Earth and Space Science
CONTENT TOPIC: Oceanography
CONCEPT: Oceans are important to life on earth.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 4M4.00 To understand the movement of oceans in currents, tides, and waves
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Unifying Concepts of Science
BENCHMARK: Models allow us to make inferences about real world processes and events.
2. Oceans are in continual motion due to the spinning of the earth, the gravitational attraction of the moon, surface winds, and heating by the sun.
3. Ocean currents occur on and below the ocean surface. Ocean currents on the surface are basically caused by winds. Deep ocean currents are caused by the uneven heating of ocean water by the sun. Activity:
Fill a clear plastic container 3/4 full of tap water. Place a rock in a bag that is 1/2 full of hot water and tie the bag closed. Place bag in one corner of the box. Float an ice cube in the opposite corner. Add 4 drops of food coloring to the water next to the ice cube. Observe for five minutes.
4. Uneven heating of ocean water also causes some areas to have a higher salt content, causing a circular current.
5. There are three different kinds of currents, depending on their origin.
7. Saltier water is heavy and sinks. Less salty water moves over it. When salty water meets less salty water, a current is formed. (To illustrate the movement of water with low salt content to high salt content. Fill one glass bottle with salt water, add blue food coloring. Fill an identical bottle with tap water. Place a card over the mouth of the bottle of salt water. Carefully invert the bottle and place it over the mouth of the bottle of tap water. Remove the card very carefully. The blue salt water will sink, because it is heavier than the tap water. The tap water will move up over the saltier water.)
8. Cold water currents carry cold water away from the North Pole and the South Pole. Most of east coast is affected by warm water currents, and most of west coast is affected by cold water currents.
9. Define trade winds - winds that blow from east to west toward the equator are called easterlies. Westerlies blow from west to east, away from the equator.
10. Ocean movements are classified as current, tidal and wave.
11 Waves are caused by the rising and falling of ocean water. (a slinky my be used to demonstrate wave motion. OR Fill a pan with water. Float a cork on the water. Stir the water in the center of the pan to form waves. Observe the cork motion. Bottle waves can be made by combining water, oil and food coloring.) Giant waves called Tsunamis are caused by earthquakes or other movements of the ocean floor such as volcanoes or landslides.
2. Find names of major surface currents and where they are located. Students will point these out on the globe or map showing warm and cold water currents.
3. If newspapers from major coastal cities are available, use these for group work. Report on damage caused by tsunami winds in the past. Locate and graph the tide tables for several days. Compare, then check again at regular intervals.)
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