Science Activities Manual: K-8 Introduction: All Grade Levels continued

THEME EMPHASIS K - 8

Bold Indicates Multiple Uses Of A Standard In The Grade Level

 G R A D E Kin 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th PROCESS OF SCIENCE 1.1 Observing ab ____ ab a a ab a a ab ab ____ ____ a b ____ ab a ____ b ____ ____ b ____ ____ ab a ____ 1.2 Questioning ab a abc b ____ abc a a a 1.3 Collecting Data ab ____ a b b bc ac b ab ab ____ ____ ____ c a ____ ____ ____ 1.4 Analyzing Data a abc ab a a ____ a a ac a abc ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ac b 1.5 Explaining c abc a ____ c abc a a c ab abc b ____ ____ ____ ____ c ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ c ____ 1.6 Communicating a ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ a a a ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ a ____ UNIFYINGCONCEPTSOF SCIENCE 2.1 Scale and model ab abcd abcd a ac abcd ab ac acd ____ e ____ ab b e ac ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ad ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ de ____ c ____ ____ 2.2 Form and Function ____ ____ ____ a a ab ab a a ____ ____ ____ ab b ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ b ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 2.3 Organization a ab a a ab ab ____ ____ ab ____ ____ a ab ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ab ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 2.4 Interactions b a a ____ a b ab ad ab ____ a b ____ b ____ ____ ____ ____ 2.5 Change ab ab ab a b ab b b a ab ab ____ b ____ ____ ____ ____ b 2.6 Conservation ____ ____ a ____ ____ a ____ ____ a HABITS OFMIND 3.1 Historical and CulturalPerspective ____ abc a a cd c c bf bc ____ ____ ____ a ef ____ cf ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ c ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3.2 Assumptions a abcd ad b acd ____ ____ ____ abd ____ ab ____ ____ b ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ cd ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3.3 Estimation and Computation ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ abc ____ a ____ 3.4 Methods ____ ____ ____ d ____ be ____ ____ ____ 3.5 Science and Technology a ____ a ____ ab abc ____ ____ ____ 3.6 Creative Enterprise ____ ____ ____ ____ a ab ____ ____ abc ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ cd ____ ____ ____ SCIENCE INSOCIETY 4.1 Attitudes ____ ____ c a ab abcd a ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ a ____ ____ c ____ ____ 4.2 Personal Needs ab ab ____ a ab abc ____ ____ ac ____ ____ ____ c ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4.3 Career Goals ____ ____ ____ b ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4.4 Societal Needs ____ ____ bc ____ ____ ab bc ____ ac 4.5 Economics ____ ab a ____ c ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ab ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ab ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4.6 Politics ____ ____ ____ ____ b bc ____ a ____

* abcde refer to specific Standards and Benchmarks contained in the
Four Components For Science Education

TOUCH SCIENCE

Beginning in the school year 1985-86, with the implementation of the initial framework, the method chosen for teaching science in Tennessee was the hands-on, touch science, or activity method. This approach was endorsed by the Center of Excellence for Science and Mathematics Education (CESME) and the Center for Environmental and Conservation Education (CE/CE). The respective staffs were later to be heavily involved in the implementation phase, yet the ultimate decision rested with the Tennessee Department of Education (TDE) science consultant.

Validation of this position as taken by the TDE and endorsed by the CESME and CE/CE can be shown by a review of numerous studies comparing the hands-on approach to the traditional textbook approach (Shymansky, Kyle, and Alport, 1982). The particular hands-on programs studied were the Elementary Science Study (ESS), Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science - Science A Process Approach (SAPA).

Some 20 studies were analyzed with regard to academic achievement. The authors concluded:

Contrary to a popular notion that hands-on, activity-based science curricula lacked a potent academic content base, we found that students using these ... programs actually outscored students in the more traditional classrooms - by as much as 34 percentile points.

Attitude toward the hands-on approach was investigated through the analysis of 21 studies. The findings were:

The studies approached the question of attitude in three ways: (1) attitude toward the new course, (2) attitude toward science, and (3) attitude toward self. In each of these categories, student attitudes were more positive toward the new programs than toward the traditional ones, with differences ranging from 3 to 20 percentile points.

Process Skills development was also analyzed in the review. The results of the investigation were:

The new elementary science curriculum placed great emphasis on the development of process skills, including observing, inferring, interpreting data, hypothesizing, and graphing. We analyzed the results of 13 studies that focused on process skill development in new curricula versus traditional classrooms. In the three elementary science curricula we studied, new curricula students scored at least 18 percentile points higher than traditional class students on measures of process skill development.
In summary the authors reported:

Our quantitative synthesis of the research clearly shows that students in those programs achieved more, liked science more, and improved their skills more than did students in traditional, textbook-based classrooms. The report for the hands-on curricula is impressive.

In another study (Bredderman, 1985), supported by the National Science Foundation, the effects of the same three programs on student outcomes were assessed by quantitatively combining the results of 57 reported evaluations of the programs. Only evaluations in which controls were used were included. In summary:

It appears that the programs designed to encourage the use of laboratory science, starting in the elementary school years, do in fact result in improved student performance in a number of valued curricular areas. Based on the available research evidence, it also appears that the use of inquiry programs increases the amount of student-laboratory activity and decreases the amount of teacher talk in classrooms, as intended (Bredderman, 1984). How to capitalize on the advantages of the laboratory approach by making it attractive to a wider range of school-based educators remains an unresolved problem for the present reform effort.

The Science Activities Manual K-8 addresses content with a hands-on approach while incorporating the themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. This emphasis on both the physical and mental aspects of teaching and learning science is best described as touch science. Other science educators have referred to this thrust as hands-on, brains-on science. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies which bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

SUGGESTED MATERIALS WHICH ARE GRADE-LEVEL SPECIFIC
OR CAN BE GRADED UP OR DOWN FOR CORRELATION WITH THE
SCIENCE ACTIVITIES MANUAL K - 8

The Tennessee Valley Authority is a source for accessing the following Sourcebooks:

The Energy Sourcebook: Grades 3-5 Unit - Activities, fact sheets, glossaries, references, and resources which emphasize energy topics such as electricity, energy and the environment, energy conservation, renewable energy resources, and energy in the Tennessee Valley. (1989) May also be downloaded in pdf file format from tvakids.com

The Energy Sourcebook: Sixth Grade Unit - Activities, fact sheets, glossaries, references, and resources which emphasize energy topics such as hydropower, energy from coal, nuclear power, solar power, energy conservation, and alternative energy sources. (1988)

The Energy Sourcebook: Junior High School Unit - Activities. fact sheets. glossaries, references, and resources which emphasize energy topics such as electrical power production, energy and transportation, new energy technologies, energy and the environment, energy conservation, and renewable energy resources. (1991) May also be downloaded in pdf file format from tvakids.com

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bredderman, Ted. "Laboratory Programs for Elementary Science: A Meta-Analysis of Effects on Learning." Science Education, 1985, 69, 577-591.

Shymansky, James A., Kyle, William C. and Alport, Jennifer M. "How Effective were the Hands-on Programs of Yesterday?". Science and Children, 1982, 20, 14-15.

Tennessee Department of Education. Tennessee Science Curriculum Framework. Nashville, Tennessee: State of Tennessee, effective l997.

Tennessee Department of Education. Tennessee Science Standards: Kindergarten through Twelve. Nashville, Tennessee: State of Tennessee, effective 2003