CONCEPT: Heat energy affects matter in various ways.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 2C3.00 To understand the meaning of temperature
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
3.01 relate air temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit thermometer
3.02 find freezing point and boiling point of water.
3.03 collect temperatures for a week of seasonal weather.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
I. Relate air, body and water temperature
II. Experiment with different kinds of thermometers
III. Measure temperature in various parts of room
IV. Identify freezing and boiling point
V. compare light and dark objects in relation to hot and cold
VI. Outside variation of temperature
VII. Identify people who use thermometers
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Process of Science
To enable students to demonstrate the processes of science by posing questions and investigating phenomena through language, methods and instruments of science.
1.3 COLLECTING DATA - The acquiring, recording, arranging and storing of information must be performed in a complete, accurate, concise and user-friendly manner.
TN STANDARD(S): The learner will understand that:
1.3a Data are collected using the senses, instrumentation, and a variety of other technologies.
BENCHMARK: Students experience and learn about the world through their senses. Tools, such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, calculators, computers, scales and balances supply additional information for scientific investigation.
45 minutes - one hour (two instructional periods)
Thermometers - different kinds, a cardboard thermometer,
hot and cold water, four of the following: glass bottle, clay, clear straw; two flat pans, crayons and dark paper, graph paper, an appropriate ditto (maybe math) that shows thermometers, winter-summer clothing ditto
I feel very sick. I need someone to come up here and see if you can tell if I am sick. (You're looking for a child who will touch your forehead for temperature.) You touched my forehead to see if I had a what? (temperature) Check your neighbor and see if they are sick. Today we will learn the meaning of temperature.
(Hold up the cardboard thermometer.) Who can tell
me what this is? (response) What does it do? (response) When the temperature is hot which way does the red liquid go, up or down? (Up) When the weather is cool or cold, which way does the red liquid go, up or down? (Down) I am going to divide you up into groups and then I will give each group a thermometer. When you get your thermometer, take turns taking each others temperature by placing the thermometer under your arm, behind your knee or between your finger and thumb. Write down the three temperatures you get. (response)
I am going to place one thermometer over here by the sunny window. I will place another thermometer over here in a shady spot. We'll wait quietly for a few minutes and then we will compare the temperatures of the two thermometers. (response)
There are two types of thermometers - one is Celsius and the other is Fahrenheit. If I placed a Celsius thermometer in a pan of boiling water, the red liquid would go up to 100 degrees. Boiling water is 100 degrees Celsius. If we used a Celsius thermometer to measure water that is so cold it is freezing, the red liquid would go all the way down to zero. Zero is freezing on a Celsius thermometer. (Demonstrate using a Celsius thermometer in boiling water and icy water.)
The other type thermometer, the Fahrenheit, shows the temperature of boiling water to be 212 degrees and icy or freezing water to be 2 degrees. (Demonstrate with Fahrenheit thermometer.)
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Divide class into small groups. Provide each group with two pans of water. Place black paper on bottom of one of the pans. Place a crayon on the bottom of each pan, then place the pans in a sunny window. Have students predict to their partner what will happen. In about one hour check the pans. The crayon in the dark pan is softer than the crayon in the light pan.) What does this experiment tell us? (Wearing light colored clothes on a hot day will help your body be cooler.)
2. Give each group a thermometer and have them check temperatures at various locations in the room "high, low, near a sunny window, near and open door, etc." Chart the findings for comparisons.)
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Distribute work sheets showing thermometers and have children write in temperature. This can be correlated to math by finding how much difference in various temperatures.
2. Word hunt puzzle to locate new words "degree, temperature, cold, hot, thermometer, etc." This could be put on the board as a whole group activity.
3. Coloring sheets to color clothes to wear on hot days.)
(Use cardboard thermometer.) Today we have talked about temperature. I am going to say a word or a temperature and, using thumbs up or thumbs down, you will show me which way to move the mercury on my thermometer. (You may want to use the following words: boiling water, ice water, hot sunshine, snow, car hood, ice cream, Popsicle.) Whisper to your partner what makes temperature rise. (Heat)
(Make and display a thermometer using a glass bottle filled to the top with cool water. Insert a clear straw about two centimeters into mouth of bottle and hold straw secure by pressing clay tightly into the mouth of the bottle. Observe water level. Put bottle of water into bowl of very hot water and observe change in water level. Referring to previous lesson that heat causes molecules to move faster and fill more space, notice that this is what is happening in the straw thermometer. Liquid in a thermometer expands causing it to go up and as it cools it contracts and moves down, taking up less space.)
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