|Earth and Space Science||Oceanography 2M1.00||Unifying Concepts of Science||Scale and Model 2.1 abcd|
Sponsored by the National Science Foundation
CONTENT STANDARD: Earth and Space Science
CONTENT TOPIC: Oceanography
CONCEPT: Different bodies of water provide important resources.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 2M1.00 To identify different bodies of water
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Unifying Concepts of Science
BENCHMARK: A model is a representation of a real item or concept. Toys serve as models assisting with the understanding of complex ideas.
2.1b Different models can be used to represent the same thing. The kind of model and its complicity depends on its purpose.
BENCHMARK: Various models may be constructed to represent a given item or concept.
2.1c Models are often used to study processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small or too large a scale to observe directly.
BENCHMARK: Models can be used to demonstrate time progression or visual enhancements.
2.1d The scale chosen for a model determines its effectiveness.
BENCHMARK: The model's effectiveness is dependent on choice of materials, size, weight, age and speed.
Much of the water that falls on land runs down hill. Streams often begin in the mountains, and flow through valleys. Water from melting snow and rain trickle together. Streams may be dry in the drought season and overflow in the rainy season.
When many small streams come together, a river forms. A river is moving water that generally moves toward the ocean.
Streams and rivers are known as pathways because they flow.
A pond is a small body of water surrounded by land. Ponds can be made by man. Beavers can dam a stream to form a pond. Water trapped in a low area of land that cannot drain away will form a pond. Some ponds are fed by underground water.
A lake is similar to a pond, except that it is larger. Lakes can also be man-made or natural. Lakes do not always stay the same. Streams may empty into lakes. The lake may lose its water and dry up.
Lakes, ponds, rivers and streams are fresh water. Rivers empty into the largest body of water, oceans. Oceans contain salt water.
Ponds - Press a wide shallow bowl into a box of loose soil or sand. Fill the bowl with water. Have the students write a story about how the pond was formed.
Lakes - Press a bigger bowl into a box of loose soil or sand. Fill the bowl with water. Have the students write a story about how the lake was formed.
Streams - Make a clay model of a stream. Have several streams run together to form a river.
Rivers - Make a map showing several streams running together to form a river. The map should resemble the branches of a tree coming together into the main river. The river should run into the ocean on the map.
Oceans - Cut a shape of North America from poster board. Fill a large pan (such as a roasting pan) with water. Lay the cut out in the pan, showing how the oceans surround the land.)
1. Students use crayons to draw pictures of water scenes. Make a thin mixture of blue tempera paint. Students "paint" this over their picture. This wash gives a water effect for the background.
2. Use a map of Tennessee to find three bodies of water and three pathways of water.
3. Make a papier-mâché' model of the earth's surface showing lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers.)
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