CONCEPT: The human body is supported and protected by various body systems.
CONTENT OBJECTIVE: 3G1.00 To understand the function, growth, and development of various body systems
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: The learner will:
1.01 describe how the skeleton supports the body.
1.02 identify the parts protected by the skeleton.
1.03 state that the height of a person depends on the length of the bones.
1.04 locate and describe cartilage.
1.05 state the importance of cartilage to the skeleton.
1.06 demonstrate the types and functions of joints.
1.07 define muscle.
1.08 compare voluntary and involuntary muscles.
1.09 show that movement is caused by the contraction of muscles.
1.10 define tendon and explain the function.
1.11 define ligaments and explain their functions.
1.12 list the functions of the skin.
1.13 name the layers of the skin. 1.14 identify the structures in the skin.
1.15 list the rules for skin care.
1.16 locate and identify brain, lungs, and heart.
1.17 define and discuss the functions of the brain, lungs, and heart.
OUTLINE OF CONTENT:
I. Functions of the skeleton
II. Parts protected by the skeleton
III. As bones get longer, height increases
IV. Define cartilage
V. Function of cartilage
VI. Define joints
VII. Function of joints
VIII. Definition of voluntary and involuntary muscles
IX. Listing characteristics of muscles
X. Demonstrating types of muscles
XI. Tendons and their meanings
XII. Ligaments and their meanings
XIII. Functions of the skin
A. Protects us from disease and sun rays
B. Regulates body heat
XIV. Layers of the skin
1. Outer layer
1. Inner layer
2. Not visible
XV. Structures of the skin
A. Blood vessels
C. Root hairs
D. Oil glands
XVI. Rules for proper skin care
A. Regular bathing
B. Clean hair and nails
XVII. Location of body parts
XVIII. Discussion of functions
TN COMPONENT OF SCIENCE: Unifying Concepts of Science
To enable students to acquire scientific knowledge by applying concepts, theories, principles and laws from life/environmental, physical, and earth/space science.
2.3 ORGANIZATION - Everything is organized as related systems within systems.
TN STANDARD(S): The learner will understand that:
2.3a Natural phenomena display a wide variety of similarities and differences.
BENCHMARK: There are variations among individuals within all systems.
BENCHMARK: Things can be sorted into groups according to their similarities and differences.
2.3b Groupings are based on similarities related to structure and function.
BENCHMARK: Organisms are separated into groups according to identifying characteristics.
BENCHMARK: Some individuals operate independently of the system, while others operate as a collective group.
Seven classroom connectors
This classroom connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.01, 1.02, and 1.03.
Film or filmstrip on the skeleton system, poster or model of the skeleton system, two chicken leg bones, vinegar, handouts, projector screen, teacher-made word search
How many of you have seen a dancing skeleton on Halloween? (response) You know that skeletons don't dance around by themselves. Do you know what skeletons actually do? (response) That's what we'll find out today.
Our skeletons are made up of different bones. Bones are very hard and rigid. Minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate, make the bones hard. Milk and milk products have lots of calcium which strengthens bones. The bones in our skeletons have many jobs. Some bones protect other parts of the body. (Rib bones have holes and knobs for muscle to attach. Our skeleton is literally a support system. It supports our muscles and gives us much of our shape. Without the bones in our skeleton, our bodies would collapse. The length of our bones determine our height
(The following activities are suggested:
1. Show a film or filmstrip which emphasizes the skeleton and the role it plays in supporting the body.
2. Have the students examine a skeleton and compare the bones to a living person.
3. Use a film, filmstrip, or wall charts to show how the skeleton protects the organs of the body.
4. Compare the length of the leg bones from chickens. Have students determine the larger animal by examining the bones.
5. Obtain two chicken bones and soak one in vinegar for 5-7 days. Remove the bone and observe the appearance after the loss of minerals. Calcium makes bones hard. Without it bones get soft. Activity may be related to diet of the student. Go into discussion about where we get calcium.
6. Have children label a handout showing the various parts of a skeleton and the function of each. Work in small groups.
7. Have children work a teacher-made word search puzzle using words
This classroom connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.04, and 1.05.
Poster of human skeleton
Put your finger on the tip of your nose and wiggle it around. Grab your ear and wiggle it around. Today we will learn about the material inside the tip of your nose and your ears that makes them flexible. It is called cartilage.
Cartilage has a smooth, sponge like property that cushions our bones when we walk or run. It is a good thing that cartilage is in the tip of our noses or they might get broken quite often. Our bones are not very flexible. They aren't supposed to bend. The places where two bones come together are called joints. Cartilage protects these bones from rubbing together and causing a lot of pain. Another part of the body where cartilage is found is the windpipe. Rings of cartilage support the windpipe. Put your fingers on your throat and rub up and down. You can feel these rings of cartilage. What do you think would happen if the cartilage wasn't around the windpipe? (The windpipe would close when a person breathes out because the cartilage supports it.)
(Using a pointer, have children take turns coming to the front of the room and pointing to the places on the poster where you would find cartilage.)
Today we have talked about cartilage. Raise your hand if you can tell me why cartilage is so important to the human skeleton. (pause) (It serves as a cushion to our bones.)
This classroom connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.06.
Bones from a butcher shop, pictures of joints, poster of human skeleton
Put your hand on your elbow. Bend it. Now straighten it. Put your hand on your knee. Bend it. Straighten it. Today we are going to talk about body joints.
Our skeleton is made up of many bones. The places where these bones join together are called joints. Joints are places where two bones come together. Without joints, our skeleton would have no flexibility. There are four types of joints. One type is called a FIXED joint. The skull, is an example of a FIXED joint. (It stays put.) The knee and elbow are examples of the HINGE joint. The knee and elbow need to allow the bones to move back and forth like the hinges on a door. The shoulder and hip joint are an example of the BALL AND SOCKET joint. They need to be able to sort of roll. Look at the poster of the human body. You can see how the shoulder joint and the hip joint are different from the elbow and knee joint. Our wrists and ankles need lots of flexibility. They move in an almost complete circle. These joints are called PIVOT joints.
Stand up. Without saying a word, move the part of your body that will show me the hinge joint. (Elbow, knee) The ball and socket joint (Shoulder, hip). The pivot joint. (Wrist, ankles)
Divide children into groups. They will write a riddle that gives clues about a particular joint. Review 4 kinds of joints.
Today we have talked about what joints do for our skeleton. Raise your hand if you can tell me why we have joints. (To give our skeleton flexibility.) List the four types of joints and give an example of each. (response)
This classroom connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.07, 1.08, and 1.09.
Two instructional periods
Handouts, chart, magazines, film strip on muscles
The students will define the term MUSCLE. Today class I want you to hold up your arm and tighten and release your fist. Observe the movement. Feel your neighbor's arm. Today class we will discuss the meaning and function of voluntary and involuntary muscles.
(Prepare a bulletin board with pictures of children doing activities: basketball, running, jumping, throwing ball. Lead a discussion about muscles being used to help movements in the pictures.) Muscles make up 1/3-1/2 of a person's body weight. Muscles range in size from the large ones in the thigh to the
very tiny muscles found in the ear. You have more than 600 muscles, big and small. You have muscles in almost every part of your body. Some of our muscles act on commands from our brain. Make a "muscle" show on your arm. (response) Your brain told your muscle what to do. The muscles you can command to work are VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. Your heart is a muscle. Do you have to remember to tell it to beat? (No) Muscles that work on their own are called INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. Heart, lungs and brain are involuntary muscles.
ACTIVE PARTICIPATION: (The following activities are suggested:
1. The students will draw an outline of a body. Locate areas of involuntary muscles, and color them.
2. The students will cut out pictures from magazines showing voluntary muscles being used.)
Tell your neighbor one involuntary muscle. Have your neighbor tell you one voluntary muscle. (pause, then summarize)
This classroom connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.10, and 1.11.
One instructional period
(Have students in pairs. One student will place a piece of tape over the index fingers of the other student, while they are placed end to end. This will show how ligaments and tendons connect.) Today class we are going to define and discuss the functions of tendons and ligaments.
(Write both terms, tendons and ligaments, on the board. Define each and have students repeat.)
Tendons: A tough fiber that connects muscles to bones. As the muscle contracts and relaxes, the tendon transfers that movement to the bone.
Ligaments: Ligaments are tough fibers which tie bones to other bones at a joint.
ACTIVE PARTICIPATION: (The following activities are suggested:
1. The student will look at his/her knuckles when they make a fist. Then have them look at the back of their hand, the long cords are called tendons. The student will touch their tendons. Describe wrist and underside of the forearm.
2. The student will observe tendons from muscles of a chicken leg or wing. Remove muscles and observe the ligaments between the joints.) (Do this activity the day you have fried chicken for lunch.)
(Restate the learning. Present the students with pictures of tendons and ligaments. Have the students determine whether a tendon and/or a ligament is present in each of the pictures.)
Invite a physical therapist or sports medicine professional to make a presentation to the class.
This classroom connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, and 1.15.)
Three instructional periods, 30 minutes each
Filmstrip on skin, projector, microscope, skin cells, books on skin disease, handouts (teacher-made)
Who can tell me what a plate of armor is? (Protects a man) Our skin is like armor. How? (It protects our inside from disease.)
(Show a poster or model demonstrating the layers of skin, structures of the skin and functions of the skin.) Our skin protects us from diseases. Germs in our environment can make us sick if they get inside our bodies. Our skin prevents this from happening too often. The sun would overheat our blood and other vital organs if the skin didn't protect us. Our skin regulates our body's temperature.
There are two layers of skin. The skin we see is called the epidermis. There is another layer of skin underneath called the dermis. Look at your arm. What do you see on your skin? (Hair, pores) Now open your hand and look at your palm. What do you see? (Veins) You see your veins. These veins are under the skin. There are blood vessels, nerves and oil glands in the skin but they can't be seen by the human eye.
To have healthy skin, you need to take baths regularly, and keep your hair and nails clean. This is called good grooming. Good grooming is important for appearance and health.
ACTIVE PARTICIPATION: (The following activities are suggested:
1. Show a filmstrip on the skin.
2. Use a microscope to examine skin cells. Have students draw and label their observations.
3. Make a list of good grooming tips. Post the list in the classroom.
4. Let the children work a teacher-made word search sheet using the words from the lesson.)
Sketch and color and label the two layers of skin, (Epidermis, dermis) What does our skin do for us? (response)
(Have children to write a report on skin diseases and report to class. Work in small groups.)
(Handouts, teacher-made tests)
This classroom connector addresses Instructional Objectives 1.16, and 1.17.
Three instructional periods (at least 20 minutes in length)
Stethoscope, body parts chart
SET: (The teacher will:
1. Blow up a balloon and let the air out.
2. Listen to a clock ticking) Students, what body parts do we think about when we see these two activities? (Heart, lungs) As we think, what body part do we use? (Brain)
Today class, we are going to talk about the three body parts: lungs, brain and heart and discuss their importance.
(Have a body chart on the board. Point to the brain, lungs, and heart.) The brain is located in the head. It is soft and gray. Because the brain is soft, it is protected by the skull, a fixed joint which we have studied. Why is the brain so important? (response) It is like a computer in our bodies. The lungs are located in the chest cavity with the heart. The lungs take the oxygen we inhale from the air. (Remember the oxygen comes from plants) and helps filter carbon dioxide from the body. The heart is a muscle that collects and pumps blood to all parts of our body.
(The students will pair off and point to the location of the body parts. Each student will listen to the others heartbeat. The teacher will bring in stethoscopes. Each student will observe their partner's chest as he breathes in and out.)
Breathe in and out deeply. What part are we using? (Lungs) Place your hand on your heart. What do you feel? (Heart beating) What body part is helping you to think about these activities? (Brain)
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