"Thi word is a lanterne to my feet; and liyt to my pathis." (Psalm 119:105 Wycliffe Bible)


English Bible Translation through Wycliffe


As of October 2017 the full Bible had been translated into 670 languages. English is the most popular, with  over100 complete translations (900+ if you count translations, paraphrases and corrective updates of parts of the Bible). Looking at the historical, linguistic, social, and political contexts, we note that this status represents  anything but a smooth development.

In France, though there were a number of languages, just about all of them were gallo-romance. In Great Britain, a great linguistic diversification was the result of migration and conquest. During the period in question, from 500 to 1395. There were Latin, Celtic languages and their descendants (Common Brittonic, Cumbric, Welsh, Breton, and Cornish), Anglo-Saxon, or Old English (with regional dialects, Kentish, West Saxon, Mercian, and Northumbrian), Middle English, Anglo-Norman, Middle Irish (which becme Scottish Gaelic), Scandinavian languages (Old Norse, Frisian), languages of Danelaw (NorthEast Eng.) Hebrew and Aramaic (in England's Jewish community. Extant documents are generally in Anglo-Norman, Old English, Middle English, Latin, Hebrew and Aramaic

It is noteworthy that Alfred the Great,  9th-century English King proposed that primary education be taught in English, with those wishing to advance to holy orders to continue their studies in Latin. "Winchester standard", or more commonly as Late West Saxon. It is considered to represent the "classical" form of Old English.

As it has always been, translating sacred scripture is not the only way to make plain the meaning of the word of God to vernacular speakers. In England, during the Middle Ages, there were vernacular sermons, lessons, macaronic written discourse, exultet scrolls, statues, stain glass windows, picture book bibles (biblia pauperum), saint's lives, book illustrations, metrical and prose paraphases (as in MS Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Arch. Selden. Supra 52, or in MS Cambridge Corpus Christi College, 444 ), drama (like passion and mystery plays), biblical and religious poetry (like The Heliand, and Cursor Mundi), stories, like vernacular paraphrases of Peter Comestor's Historia scholastica, extensive references in Chaucer and Þe Ancrene Riwle, etc..

Sermons are important here, because they are often based directly on scripture. The church in England, however does not have an equivalent to the Council of Tours decision, asking priests to deliver sermons "in rusticam  romanam linguam aut theotiscam". It has left us evidence of this practice in collections of vernacular sermons. Also, in 1281, John Pecham, Archbishop of Canterbury, in his Constitutions of the Synod of Oxford, commanded that

". . .every priest having charge of a flock do, four times in each year (that is, once each quarter), on one or more solemn feast days, either himself or by some one else, instruct the people in the vulgar language, simply and without any fantastical admixture of subtle distinctions, in the articles of the Creed, the Ten Commandments, the Evangelical Precepts (the Apostles' Creed_, the seven works of mercy, the seven deadly sins with their offshoots, the seven principal virtues, and the Sacraments."

Though commissioned by Pope Damascus in 382 AD, St. Jerome's Vulgate did not become the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church until  the Council of Trent, in 1546. The intervening years saw the creation of distinctly different Bibles through significant variants in the copying process. No single exemplar could be considered authoritative, with the possible exception of the Codex Amiatinus, produced in England, but now in the Laurentian Library, Florence. This, The expense of production, the general illiteracy of the public and some churchmen, may be among the reasons why whole Vulgate Bibles were fairly rare in the English Middle Ages.

There were, however, psalters, pentateuchs, apocalypses, and large format multi-volume bibles produced

    MS London, British Library, Royal  1 E VII

    MS London, British Library, Royal MS 1 E VIII

Single-volume Vulgate Bibles did not appear in England before the twelfth century, mostly in large monasteries or other wealthy owners. For example,

    MS London, British Library, Lansdowne 453

According to Thomas More, Lord Chancellor of England under Henry VIII "The whole Bible long before Wycliff's day was by virtuous and well-learned men translated into the English tongue, and by good and godly people with devotion and soberness well and reverently read" (Dialogues III, p. 138, 1530).
Indeed there were English glosses and full translations of parts of the Bible before that time, like the 8th century Blickling Psalter (MS New York Pierpont Morgan Library  M.776), in Latin, with interlinear Anglo-Saxon glosses, like the 11th century Cædmon Manuscript (Bodleian Library MS. Junius 11) contining an Old English verse translation of parts of Genesis, Exodus and Daniel.

The first single-volume translation of the whole Vulgate Bible in medieval England was likely that of the translation team working under John Wycliffe. I have found no evidence of a single-volume complete Bible in Anglo-Norman preceding this. Margaret Deanesly  wrote in her The Lollard Bible: And Other Medieval Biblical Versions (Eugene Oregon: Wiph and Stock Publishers, 2002):  "A complete Anglo-Norman Bible existed in 1361, but it must have been rare . . . Jean de Sy's continental version of the Bible, executed in 1355 by order of King John of France was merely a revision of  the old Anglo-Norman Bible, . . ." (p. 142). There is a nearly complete Anglo-Norman Bible (up to the Epistles): MS Paris BNF fr. 1. Samuel Berger describes it in  La Bible française au moyen age : étude sur les plus anciennes versions de la Bible écrites en prose de langue d'Oïl (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1884) as "à peu près complet" in (p. 230). We do not know if the Anglo-Norman text used by Jean de Sy in his partial Bible translation (MS Paris BNF fr. 15397) was a complete Bible.  A number of facsimiles of manuscripts containing Anglo-Norman translation of scripture can be viewed at

    Textual Sources of Gallo-Romance Vernacular Bibles  

John Wycliffe most certainly had a hand in the Bible translation named after him, more likely in the New Testament books than in the Old Testament translation, which is attributed to Nicholas of Hereford.  Other likely contributors are John Purvey and John Trevisa. The Wicliffe or "Lollard" Bible contained not only translations of the Old and New Testaments, but books which we refer to as the Apocrypha, along with the Esdras and Paul's epistle to the Laodiceans.  Wycliffe died in 1384, but the first translation appeared over a period of 1382 to 1395. Wycliffe was convinced Englishmen needed a version of the Bible that they could understand and read. Unfortunately, he and his work became associated with the Lollard movement. On 4 May 1415, the Council of Constance declared Wycliffe a heretic, decreeing that his books be burned and his remains be exhumed. It is amazing we have as many copies as we do.

Since our closing era is that of Wycliffe, we have not included incunabula. The study is illustrated with links to over 250 medieval manuscripts, partial manuscripts, editions, transcriptions, critical studies and bibliographies. We have linked by categories  manuscript facsimilies and facsimile page collections: from the categories below. This study is part of the

    Andy Holt Virtual Library

and linked on the "History, International Studies, Philosophy & Religion" resource page.

I wish to express my gratitude to three teachers who have facilitated and inspired my study of the Bible in the context of church history: Ira Lee Andrews † (1938-2013), my Bible teacher at Randolph-Macon College in Ashland Virginia, Ford Lewis Battles (1915-1979), my Church History and Latin teacher at The Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, and Aubrey C. Briggs † (1920-2014), my Bible teacher at Ken Mawr Presbyterian Church, in Pittsburgh.


Picture-Book Bibles - Though not translations, they represent the a willing effort in the Christian community to make the Word of God understood to those who could not read Latin. They are often sequenced graphics, like our comic books:

MS London British Library Add MS 19896 - Apocalypse Picture Book (3rd quarter of the 15th century).

MS London British Library  Add 38121 - Picture book life of St. John and Apocalypse (ca 1400).

MS London British Library Additional 47682 - detailed description Holkham Bible.

MS New York, Morgan Library M.638 - The Crusader Bible (Morgan Picture Bible).

MS Oxford, Bodleian Library Auct D.4.14 - Picture Book Bodleian Apocalypse (1250-1260).

MS Oxford Bodeleian Apocalypse Douce 180 with commentary (the 'Douce Apocalypse') - Picture Book
 


Gospel of Nicodemus
- This is not part of the Vulgate apocrapha, but was popular during the Middle Ages. It's point of origin is likely mid fourth century.

MS London British Library Add MS 18633 - Latin Apocalypse with 13th cent. French tranlsation + Middle English paraphrase.

MS British Library Vitellius A X [Southwick Codex] - Old English Gospel of Nicodemus, etc. (11th-16th cent.).


MS London British Museum Cotton Vitellius A XV [ff.60r-86v] - Gospel of Nicodemus in Old English.

MS British Library Vitellius A X [Southwick Codex] - Gospel of Nicodemus, etc. (Old English 11th-16th cent.).

MS London British Library Cotton Vitellius A XV - Old Eng. Beowulf; Judith, Gospel of Nicodemus (10th-16th cent.).

MS Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, LUDWIG III 1 - Dyson Perrins Apocalypse (1255-1260).

MS Univ. of Manchster Chetham's Library Crawford Syriac MS 3 - Apocryphal books of the Old Testament (15th-17th cent.).


MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 895 - Gospel of Nicodemus, Process of the Passion (15th century).

MS Washington D.C. Library of Congress codex Middle English some Latin - Gospel of Nicodemus is 1 of 3 texts (ca. 1400).


Psalters here are nore than just the Book of Psalms, containing devotional material, and a large part of the devine office; an essential tool for the liturgy. They were portable and often used to teach reading. A high percentage of those from Anglo-Saxon England have interlinear or marginal glosses or commentary.

psalter english gloss (Google images).

MS Cambridge Eng. Corpus Christi College, 272 - Psalter of Count Achadeus (Old-English glossed).


MS Cambridge Eng. Corpus Christi College, 278  - 14th cen. Middle English/Anglo-Norman/Latin Psalter.


MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 411: Psalter. (Latin/Anglo-Saxon).

MS Cambridge Trinity College  R.17.1 - Tripartitum Psalterium Eadwini (12th cent. Latin, Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon).

MS Cambridge, University Library,  Ff. 1. 23 - Winchcombe Psalter (Latin/Old English, 1025-1050).

MS  Cambridge University Library Ff.1.27 - Winchcombe Psalter (glossed Old English).

MS Cambridge Trinity College R.17.1 - The Canterbury Psalter (Latin with English gloss).

MS Cambridge Mass. Harvard University Haughton Library Codex 196 - English trans. 7 penetential psalms.

MS Cambridge Mass. Harvard University Haughton Library Richardson 36 - 14th cent. Middle English Psalter.

MS London, British Library Additional 37517 - Psalter [Old English gloss to some psalms ff. 96-104].

MS London British Library Arundel 60 - 11th cent. Psalter (detailed record, 31 pp. contains Old English glosses).

MS London British Library Arundel 155 - The Eadui Psalter, etc. with Old English glosses (11th-12th cent.).

MS London British Library Cotton Tiberius C VI - Latin Psalter with Old English, Anglo-Norman French.

MS London British Library Cotton Vespasian A I - Psalter. 9ff 2–160, (Old Eng. gloss from 9th cent).

MS London British Library Cotton Vespasian D vi - "Kentish Psalm (OE paraphrase Psalm 50 [10th-11th cent]).

MS London British Library Cotton Vitellius A.XV, f.132 - (tr. of Gospel of Nicodemus partial Old English verse paraphrase of Judith) autotype.

Vitellius psalter (Latin with Old English Introductions) ed. from MS London B.M. Cotton Vitellius E. xviii.

MS British Library Cotton Vespasian A I - The Vespasian Psalter (Latin with English glosses 8th-15th cent.).

MS London, British Library Royal 2 B V - The Royal Psalter (mid-10th - mid-11th century, glossed).


MS London British Library Stowe 2 - 11th cent Latin Psalter, detailed record, 6 pp. continuous English glosses).


MS London British Library Cotton Vitellius A. XV - Gospel of Nicodemus (ff. 60r–86v).

MS Cambridge, Mass. Harvard Houghton Library Richardson 36 - Bible. O.T. Psalms.

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library 88 - Psalms and canticles (Wycliffe, 1384).

MS New York Pierpont Morgan Library 776 - Blickling Psalter (Old English glosses, Image ID: HKH28A).

MS  Oxford  Bodleian Library  Tanner 16  (Richard Rolle, Commentary on the Psalms c. 1400).

MS Oxford Bodleian Library  425 - Surtees Psalter mid-14th cent., some English).

MS Oxford  Bodleian Library 953 -  (Richard Rolle, English 14th cent. Psalter and Commentary).

MS Oxford  Bodleian Library  Auct. d. 2. 4 - Psalter with interlinear English glosses.

MS Oxford Bodleian Library Junius 27 -  Codex Vossianus (Psalter with Anglo-Saxon gloss, 925-950AD).

MS Paris BNF Latin 8824 - Psalterium duplex, latinum et anglo-saxonicum [899] 1025-1050?               

MS Paris, BNF Lat. 8846 - aglo-catalan psalter (glossed in Old English and Old French).

MS. Philadelphia Penn Libraries Codex 196 - (7 Penitential Psalms, English religious poems, 1400).

MS Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Bibl. Rhenotraiectinae I Nr 32. Utrecht Psalter (Ill. + English and Dutch commentary, 9th century).  


Apocalypse - The vast majority of translations of this book in England are in Anglo-Norman.

MS Cambridge, Magdelene College Pepys 1803 - Pepys Apocalypse (Middle English, 10 sample pages).

MS London British Library Add 18633 - 13th cent. Latin Apocalypse, with Middle English prose paraphrase.


MS London British Library Harley 874 -  Apocalypse in English with prose commentary (c 1340-1370).




Old Testament (Includes single books and groups like the Hexateuch and the Heptateut, but not psalms)

MS Cambridge Corpus Christi College, 444  - Genesis and Exodus in Middle English Verse (1290-1310).

MS London British Library Cotton Claudius B IV - [AElfric's Old English Hexateuch], 1025-after 1150.

    See also The Old English Hexateuch facsimiles from "bl.uk" on Bing.

MS Oxford Bodleian Library Laud. Misc. 509- parts of the Hepateuch & Jushua (11th cent, 7 pp.).

MS. Oxford Bodeleian Library Auct. D. 4. 8 - Old Testament, English (1230-1250).

MS Oxford Bodleian Library Junius 11 - Cædmon Manuscript (parts of Genesis, Exodus and Daniel in Old Englis, ca 1000).


New Testament, books,  or  complete

picture book gospels manuscript (Google).

MS Cambridge Corpus Christi College 140 - The Bath Old English Gospels (Stanford U. Parker Library).

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library 434: New Testament in Middle English. 

MS England, Lichfield, Lichfield Cathedral 1 - St. Chad Gospels (inl. Old Welch, p. 141 in an erasure).  

MS England, Lichfield, Lichfield Cathedral 1 - St Chad Gospels (236 images).

MS London, British Library MS 2 A XX - Royal Prayerbook. Lord's Prayer and Apostle's Creed (8th-12th cent.). 

MS London, British Library Cotton Domitian A VII - Gospel extracts (9th-16th cent. Latin/Old English).

MS London British Library  Additional 9381 - Bodmin Gospels (9th-11 cent., Latin, Old English and Cornish).

MS London British Library Cotton Nero D.IV- Lindisfarne Gospels (interlinear Northumbian gloss ca. 970). 

MS London British Library Royal 1 A XIV - Wessex Gospels (1150-1200).  

MS Manchester The John Rylands Library Chetham's Mun.A.2.160 - Middle English New Testament.

New Haven Yale Univ. Beinecke MS 578 - contains a West-Saxon Gospel of St. Mark (11th-14th cent.).

MS Oxford  Bodleian Library  Auct. D. 2. 19 - Rushworth Gospels (9th cent., interlinear translation, 10th cent.).
 

Homilies, commentary, and exegesis - for their discussion of Bible passages.

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 32 - (Commentary in English on Mark, Luke and Pauline Epistles).

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 134: Berengaudus, Expositio super septem uisiones libri Apocalypsis.

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 162 - Old English homilies.

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 178 - Old English Homilies. 

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 188: Old English Homilies, mostly from Ælfric's First Series. 

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 198: Old English Homilies, mostly by Ælfric (10th or 11th cent.).


MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 201 - Old English and Latin homilies.


MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 296: John Wyclif and his followers, Tracts in Middle English. 
     
           
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Parker Library 303 - Old English Homilies.

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 336: Wycliffite Sermons.   

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 387: Richard Rolle of Hampole, Commentary on the Psalms.


MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 421 - Old English Homilies.
   

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 419 - Old English and Latin homilies. 

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 421- Old English and Latin homilies.

MS Cambridge Trinity College B.1.38 - an exposition of the gospels (Latin & Middle English).


MS Cambridge Trinity College B.15.34 - Homilies, exhaustive description of manuscript (no facsimiles).

MS Cambridge Trinity College Library 335 B.14.52 - Poems and Sernons in English.

MS Cambridge University Library Ii.1.33 - Old English homilies and saints' lives, by Ælfric.

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library  Brotherton Collection 502 - Festial of English Sermons (late 15th cent.  

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 109 - Sermons in English.  

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 109 - Fifteenth Century Sermons Collection  (1432?).

MS London, British Library Cotton Caligula A VII  - Heliand and a charm (life of Jesus in Old Saxon).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 85 - Wycliffe Treatises (1384).


MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 86 - Wycliffe Treatises (1384).

MS Oxford Bodleian 788 -  Wycliffe Sermons on the Sunday Gospels after Trinity (Latin, preached in English)

MS Oxford Bodleain Douce 369 - New Testament, in the earlier Wycliffite (several pages, 1400).

MS Oxford Bodleain Junius 1 - Ormulum (2 pp. gospel homilies, 1180).

The Junius Manuscript (MS Oxford Bodleian Library Junius 1, biblical exegesis in Old English, 8 pages).

MS Philadelphia Penn Libraries Codex 197 - (Wycliffite homilies : treatise on the love of God and how one should attain to it).

MS Philadelphia Penn Libraries Codex 201 - New Testament, translation of John Wycliffe (late 14th-early 15th cent.).

MS  Princeton, Scheide Library 71 - Blickling homilies (between 971 and 1025).


Wycliffe and co-editors/ followers:
whole bibles, groups of books and individual books

MS Berkeley Huntington Library 134 – Wycliffite New Testamrnt (4 pages).  

MS Berkeley Huntingdon Library 501 - Wycliffe Materials (5 pages).    

MS Bloomington, Indiana University Lilly Library, Ricketts 30 - Wycliffite Bible (1425-1450, 2 pages).

MS  Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Parker Library, CCCC  147 - (later Wycliffe).

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 336 - Wycliffite Sermons (Bible quotations and context).  

MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 440 - Wycliffie Gospels.

MS Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Houghton Library - Wycliffe. New Testament.

MS Cambridge Mass. Harvard Houghton Library Richardson 3 - New Testament John Wycliffe, revised by John Purvey (ca. 1400).

MS Dallas Texas Bridwell Library BRMS 7 - Middle English New Testament. Wycliffite Version (10 pages, 1420-1425). 

MS Dublin Trinity College 75 - Wycliffe Bible (ff. 9r, 100r). 

MS Dublin Trinity College 75 - Wycliffe Bible (ff. 9r, 100r).

MS England, Lichfield, Lichfield Cathedral 10  - Wicliffe New Twestament (image galery).
  

MS RBC 529 [Wycliffe N.T., purchased by Southby's London in 1985, item 109], ca. 1425.   

MS London British Library Arundel 104 - (detailed record) Bible in two volumes, later Wycliffe (1st quarter 15th cent).

MS London British Library Egerton 618 - Bible, early Wycliffite version (detailed record last 1/4 14th 1st of 15th cen).

MS London British Library Egerton 617 - Wycliffite Bible (7 images).

MS Univ. of Manchester Cheatham Library A.2.160 - Wycliffite New Testament (early C15th).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 3 - Wycliffe N.T. Gospels (1384).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 75 - Wycliffe New Testament  (1384).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 76 - Wycliffe New Testament (1384).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 77 - Wycliffe New Testament (1384).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 78 - Wycliffe's N.T. beginning with Mark (1384).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 81 - Wicliffe New Testament (1384).

MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 82 - Later Version Wycliffe Old Testament  (1384).


MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 91 - Holy Bible [beginning with "Wisdom"] (Wycliffe, 1384).  

Here is "content migration" information for the following Manchester Library facsimiles of Wycliffe manuscripst.
 

        English MS 3- Wycliffe Gospels, mid 15th century
        English MS 75- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
        English MS 76- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, beginning of 15th century
        English MS 77- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
        English MS 78- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, beginning of 15th century
        English MS 79- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, beginning of 15th century
        English MS 80- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, mid 15th century (?1444)
        English MS 81- Earlier Version Wycliffe New Testament, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
        English MS 82- Later Version Wycliffe Old Testament, first half of 15th century
        English MS 83- Later Version Wycliffe Parablis of Solomon, etc., end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
        English MS 84- Later Version Wycliffe Acts of the Apostles, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
        English MS 85- Wycliffe Treatises, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
        English MS 86- Wycliffe Treatises, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
        English MS 88- Later Version Wycliffe Psalms, second half of 15th century
        English MS 89- Wycliffe Old Testament, beginning of 15th century
        English MS 90- Pricke of Conscience; Wycliffe commentary on the Lord's Prayer, end of 14th/ 
                beginning of 15th century
        English MS 91- Later Version Wycliffe Bible, first half of 15th century

Some results are visible in Chetham's Library links.

MS New Haven Yale Beinecke Takamiya MS 28 - Wycliffite New testament (ca. 1400).  

MS New Haven Yale Beinecke Takamiya MS 31 - Wycliffite New testament (ca. 1400).   

MS New Haven Yale University Beinecke 125 - Wycliffite New Testament (beginning 15th cent.).

MS New York, Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library Plimpton Add. MS 03 (Wycliffe New Testament, English).

MS New York Public Library Digital Collection - Wycliffe Translation (21 page views).

MS New York, Columbia University, Rare Book & Manuscript Library Plimpton 268 - Wycliffe Harmony of the Gospels (1400-1450).

MS Oxford Bodleian 183 - New and part of Old Testaments and apocrypha (later Wyclif'fe, beginning 15th cent., selected pages).  

MS Oxford Bodleian 277 - Bible, later Wycliffe version (1415-1430, 15 pages).  

MS Oxford Bodleian  959 Old Testament, from Genesis to Baruch iii. 20, with prologues.(ff. 34v-35r, 44v, 45r, 233v-234r, 288r Wycliffe).

MS Oxford Bodleian Douce 369 f.303r - Bible, Isaiah to the end (earlier Wycliffite, ff. 303r, 338).

MS Oxford  Bodleian Library, Fairfax 11 - New Testament (ff. 122v, 141r, 176v, 185v-186r later Wycliffe, beginning 15rth cent.).

MS Oxford Christ Church 145 - Wycliffe Bible (1320-1384). 

Ms. Philadelphia Univ. of Pennsylvania Libraries Codex 201 - New Testament tr. John Wycliffe (late 14th cent. to early 15th). 

MS Princeton University. Scheide Library.. Scheide M13 -John Purvey's version of Wycliffe's translation (ca. 1410).

MS Wycliffite Bible [manuscript] : ms., [ca. 1425],  Contributor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (photo facsimile). 

Wycliffe Bible Manuscript Images (Google).   

16 best 1390 Wycliffe N.T. Manuscript images on Pinterest.


Print Transcriptions, critical editions, readings, translations

[4-col. transcription of Gospels in Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Wycliffe, Tyndale, Joseph Bosworth, ed., 1888].  

1382 Wycliffe Bible.
     

Anglo-Saxon and early English psalter: now first printed from manuscripts in the British museum (1847).   

ANGLO-SAXON GOSPELS (transcription of text from both manuscripts; 140 & 38).  

Armour / Armor of God Ephesians 6 Recited in Middle English John Wycliffe Bible (YouTube).


Bible (Wycliffe, 1380s) - Wikisource.  

Bible (Wycliffe)/Psalms (Wikisource).

Bibles Online - John Wycliffe New Testament (1390).

Biblioþēce [Old English Bible texts].

Bright, James William, ed. Evangelium secundum Mattheum: The Gospel of Saint Matthew in West-Saxon (1904).

Buddensieg, Rudolph, ed. John Wyclif's de veritate sacrae scripturae (Wyclif society Trubner & co., 1907).  

The Christmas Story in Old English – Luke Ch. 2 in Anglo-Saxon (YouTube reading).  

Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse.

Cursor mundi : the cursur o the world : a Northumbrian poem of the XIVth century... (1874).

Cursor Mundi: Lines 1-4918 of text, with essays on the sources... 1874, [1892] 1893.
  

Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter, Catholic Curch (1889).  

Eadwine's Canterbury psalter (1889).

The earliest complete English prose Psalter . . . eleven canticles, (1891).

Ecclesiastes (Wycliffe, 1395) read aloud.

Evangelium secundum Johannem: The Gospel of Saint John in West-Saxon

Euangelium secundum Lucam: The Gospel of Saint Luke in West-Saxon (1906).   

Euangelium secundum Marcum: The Gospel of Saint Mark in West-Saxon.   

Evangelium secundum Mattheum: The Gospel of Saint Matthew in West-Saxon.


A Fourteenth Century English Biblical Version (1904) - part of the New Testament.

Genesis 1 Old English/ Anglo Saxon Early Heptateuch 11th Century (Language Harmony Project), YouTube.

Genesis 1-2:3 Wycliffe Bible Middle English (Language Harmony Project) Creation on YouTube.

Genesis B - an Anglo-Saxon rendering of the Fall of Adam and Eve.

Full text of "The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels in parallel columns" Internet Archive (2011).

Full text of "The Gospel Of Nicodemus.pdf (Modern English).

The Golden Legend Compiled by Jacobus de Voragine, 1275 Englished by William Caxton, 1483 - Medieval Sourcebook.

The beginning of the Gospel of John in Old English (1:1-14 on YouTube).

The Gospel of Nicodemus, Formerly Called the Acts of Pontius Pilate.

The Gospel of Saint John in West-Saxon (1904).

The Gospel of Saint Matthew in West-Saxon (1904).

The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with the Versions of Wycliffe and Tyndale.

Harsley, Fred, ed. Eadwine's Canterbury psalter (1889).

Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 1.


Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 2.

Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 3.
  

Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 4.  

The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal books (1384, Wycliffe).

Hulme, William. The middle English Harrowing of Hell and Gospel of Nicodemus (1907).


John Wycliffe's Translation.

John Wyclif's de veritate sacrae scripturae: now first edited from the manuscripts with critical and historical notes (1907).   

John Wyclif's Bible (ed.1395).
     

M.R. James, Translation and Note. THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS, OR ACTS OF PILATE (1924).


The Junius Manuscript (MS Oxford Bodleian Library Junius 1, biblical exegesis in Old English, 8 pages).  

The Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels: Now first printed from the original manuscripts in the ... (1865).   

Livingston, Michael, ed. The Middle English Metrical Paraphrase of the Old Testament (TEAMS, 2011).  

Lord's Prayer: Anglo Saxon (Old English)-the Exeter Book Pre 1072 .   

Lord's Prayer: West Saxon Dialect (Old English, Anglo Saxon): Wessex Gospels/ Southern England (YouTube).

Luke 2 Wessex Gospels (West Saxon, Anglo Saxon, Old English) "The Birth of Jesus Christ" (YouTube).   

Matthew (Mattheu) 5: Beatitudes, Sermon on the Mount, John Wycliffe Bible Recited in Middle English (YouTube).

Middle English John Wycliffe Bible Recordings.

Morris, Richard. Old English Homilies and Homiletic Treatises.


Morris, Richard. Old English Homilies of the Twelfth Century (EETS).


Napier, Arthur S. ed. History of the holy Rood-tree (Ormulum).

O’Neill, Patrick P., ed. King Alfred’s Old English Prose Translation of the First Fifty Psalms.  

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud 509 - The Production and Use of English Manuscripts 1060 to 1220.  

Paues, Anna C, ed. A fourteenth century English Biblical version.

Psalm 22 (23) Interdeterminate Saxon (Anglo Saxon, Old English, Wessex, West Saxon): Paris Psalter.

Psalm 23--Middle English (based on Cotton Vespasian D vii).

Psalm 23 n Old English, from the Paris Psalter (YouTube).


Psalm 23 John Wycliffe Bible Recited in Middle English (YouTube).

Psalm 61 (Salm 60) Prayer of David for Protection: John Wycliffe Bible Middle English (YouTube).

Psalm 91 (90) Indeterminate Saxon (Anglo Saxon, West Saxon, Old English): Paris Psalter (YouTube).

Psalm 91 (Psalm 90)- John Wycliffe Bible Recited in Middle English (YouTube).

Psalm 144 Prayer for Protection, Wycliffe Bible Middle English (YouTube).

Rolle, Richard, The Psalter of the Psalms of David and certain canticles (1844).

Scott, Evelyn M. Text of "(A) translation of the West Midland psalter".


THE  SHOREHAM  PSALMS ca. 1320.


Skeat, Walter, ed. The Holy Gospels in Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian, and Old Mercian Versions...
  

Thorpe F.S.A. Benjamin, ed. . . .  . The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Holy Gospels (1843).
  

Vaughan, Robert. Tracts and treatises of John de Wycliffe.  

Vitellius psalter (Latin pselms with Old English Introductions).

Walker, Alexander Esq., tr. The Gospel of Nicodemus (Bible hub).

Wessex Gospels c.1175 (Textus Receptus Bibles).


West Saxon Gospels, c. 1175 (transcription).


White, R..M. and Robert Hollt, eds.The Ormulum / with the notes and glossary (transcription).

Wulfstan's Eschatological Homilies, ed. and tr. Joyce Tally Lionarons (2000).

Wycliffe, The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal books.

Wycliffe New Testament (Bible Database).

Wycliffe's New Testament. Tr. John Wycliffe & John Purvey (ed. Terence P. Noble 2001).


Critical Studies

Allen, Matthew. The Earliest New Testament Manuscripts. 

Anglo-Saxon justice in the Old English Hexateuch (British Library).   

Anglo-Saxon Versions of Scripture (A.D. 600–1150).

Banz, Clint. "The Anglo-Saxon Translations of the Bible." Calvary Baptist Theological  Journal  (Fall 1990).


Bearden, Logan M. "The Online Old English Illustrated Hexateuch" (Florida State Univ., ill. with facsimile pages).

Bible Research - Comments on the text, versions, and interpretation of the Bible.

Bruce, F. F. "John Wycliffe and the English Bible."  Churchman 98, no. 4 (1984).

Budny, Mildred .British Library Manuscript Royal 1 E.vi: The Anatomy of an Anglo-Saxon Bible Fragment.

Biggs, Frederick M. Old English Religious Poetry (Oxford Bibliographies).

Caie, Graham D. "Lay Literacy and the Medieval Bible".

Cooper , W. R. John Trevisa, the Translator of Wycliffe B:  A consideration of the evidence.

Cranford , Lorin L The History of the Bible - Session 15: Topic 4.0  - The Beginning of the English Bible.

Christiaans , Dan. Bible Translations: Lesson 4 "Early English Translations" (sermon).

Christiaans , Dan.  Bible Translations: Lesson 5 - Early English Translations - Part 2 (sermon).

Crompton, James. John Wyclif: A Study in Mythology.

Dallaway, Dallaway. The Naked Text’?: the Wycliffite Bible Controversy (The Parker Library, 8/10/18).  

The Direct and Indirect Use of the Bible in Medieval English Drama (Peter Meredith).     

Eadwine Psalter description.


English Apocalypse manuscripts (Wikipedia).


The English Versions of Scripture (Early Bibles in General, Old English, Middle English).

Foley, Emily Howard. The language of the Northumbrian gloss to the Gospel of St. Matthew (Holt, 1903).

A General View of the History of the English Bible (1905).
   

Illegal English Bible (British Library).   

"John Wycliffe." English Bible History.

Hackbarth, Steven A. Apocalyptic Mentalities in Late Medieval England. Dissertation, Marquette Univ. 2009.

Hargreaves, Henry. From Bede to Wyclif: Medieval English Bible translations.

Holkham Bible Picture Book - The British Library. 

Languages in Medieval Britain (British Library).    

Lecher, Gothard Victor. John Wycliffe and his English Precursors. Religious Tract Society.   

Lindisfarne Gospels (British Library).

Marsden, Richard. Old Testament Translation: Eighth to Fourteenth Centuries (Oxford Handbooks).

Medieval Writing - The Bible.
 

Middle English Bible translations (Wikipedia).  

Mulvey, Christopher. "The Bible in England and the Bible in English" - The English Project.    

Myrc, John. "Instructions for Parish Priests" (early 15th cent., 1868).   

Old English Bible Translations (Wikipedia).
  

Old English Hexateuch (Wikipedia).     

Old English homilies and homiletic treatises (Sawles warde, and Pe wohunge of Ure Lauerd: Ureisuns of Ure Louerd and of Ure Lefdi, &c.) of the twelfh and thirteenth centuries.


Peikola, Matti "Tables of Lections in Manuscripts of the Wycliffe Bible" (2013).


the project « Glossae.net » and the medieval Gloss of the Latin Bible.
 

Professor Richard Marsden, review of Approaching the Bible in Medieval England (rev. # 1591).    

Rashko, Mary. "08.11.04, Dove, The First English Bible." The Medieval Review (08.11.04).

Rev. of Poleg. Approaching the Bible in Medieval England. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013.

Salisbury, Cathedral, 150 - Continuous Gloss psalter (11th-12th cent.).


Toswell, M. J. "The Late Anglo-Saxon Psalter: Sncestor of the Book of Hours." Florilegium (1995-96).


Vaughan and Todd. The Wycliffe Manuscripts (Vaughan & Todd, 1843). 

Vaughan, Robert, ed.. Tracts and treatises of John de Wycliffe.  

Wessex Gospels (Wikipedia).     

"Wycliffe, John" Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 63 (pp. 202-23), on Wikisource.

Wycliffe Bible Early Version (Uploaded by Jean Poutine).

Wycliffe WYC  - Bible Study Tools.



Bibliographies, webliographies and lists

Ælfric of Eynsham - ARLIMA.

Anglo-Saxon Biblical Exegesis (bibliography).

Bauckham, Richard. The Apocrypha in the Middle Ages (ARC Humanities Press, 2018).

Bibliography of Primary Sources - The Lollard Society.

A complete list of 13th and 14th century illustrated English Apocalypse Manuscripts.

English Apocalypse manuscripts (Wikipedia).


Internet Bible Catalog -  John Wycliffe.

List of English Bible translations (Wikipedia).

Lockett, Leslie. The Junius Manuscript - Oxford Bibliographies

The Lollard Society - Bibliography of Primary Sources.

Middle English Bible translations (Wikipedia).

Middle English Compendium HyperBibliography - Wycliffite Bible (early version) [WBible(1)].


Middle English Compendium HyperBibliography - Wycliffite Bible (later version) [WBible(2)].


Old English Bible translations (Wikipedia).

Old English Poetry (Old English at UVA).

The Production and Use of English Manuscripts 1060 to 1220 (Univ. of Leichester, Univ. of Leeds).


Wright, Charles D. The Apocrypha in the Middle Ages (2018, Medieval Studies Bibliographies).


Robert D. Peckham, PhD
Director, Globe-Gate Intercultural Web Project
University of Tennessee at Martin
Made in Tennessee to bring you the world
bobp@utm.edu

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