"Thi word is a lanterne to my feet; and liyt to my pathis." (Psalm 119:105 Wycliffe Bible)
English Bible Translation through Wycliffe
As of October 2017 the full Bible had been translated into 670
languages. English is the most popular, with over100 complete translations
(900+ if you count translations, paraphrases and corrective updates of
parts of the Bible). Looking at the historical, linguistic, social, and
contexts, we note that this status represents anything but a
In France, though there were a number of languages, just about all of
them were gallo-romance. In Great Britain, a great linguistic
diversification was the result of migration and conquest. During the
period in question, from 500 to 1395. There were Latin, Celtic
languages and their descendants (Common Brittonic, Cumbric, Welsh,
Breton, and Cornish), Anglo-Saxon, or Old English (with regional
dialects, Kentish, West Saxon, Mercian, and Northumbrian), Middle
English, Anglo-Norman, Middle Irish (which becme Scottish Gaelic),
Scandinavian languages (Old Norse, Frisian), languages of Danelaw
(NorthEast Eng.) Hebrew and Aramaic (in England's Jewish community.
Extant documents are generally in Anglo-Norman, Old English, Middle
English, Latin, Hebrew and Aramaic
It is noteworthy that Alfred the Great, 9th-century English King
proposed that primary education be taught in English, with those
wishing to advance to holy orders to continue their studies in Latin.
"Winchester standard", or more commonly as Late West Saxon. It is
considered to represent the "classical" form of Old English.
As it has always been, translating sacred scripture is not the only way
to make plain the meaning of the word of God to vernacular speakers. In
England, during the Middle Ages, there were vernacular sermons,
lessons, macaronic written discourse, exultet scrolls, statues, stain
glass windows, picture book bibles (biblia pauperum), saint's lives,
book illustrations, metrical and prose paraphases (as in MS Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Arch. Selden. Supra 52, or in MS Cambridge Corpus Christi College, 444 ), drama (like passion and mystery plays), biblical
and religious poetry (like The Heliand, and Cursor Mundi), stories,
like vernacular paraphrases of Peter Comestor's Historia scholastica,
extensive references in Chaucer and Þe Ancrene Riwle, etc..
Sermons are important here, because they are often based directly on
scripture. The church in England, however does not have an equivalent
to the Council of Tours decision, asking priests to deliver sermons "in
rusticam romanam linguam aut theotiscam". It has left us evidence
of this practice in collections of vernacular sermons. Also, in 1281,
John Pecham, Archbishop of Canterbury, in his Constitutions of the
Synod of Oxford, commanded that
". . .every priest having charge of a flock do, four times in each year
(that is, once each quarter), on one or more solemn feast days, either
himself or by some one else, instruct the people in the vulgar
language, simply and without any fantastical admixture of subtle
distinctions, in the articles of the Creed, the Ten Commandments, the
Evangelical Precepts (the Apostles' Creed_, the seven works of mercy,
the seven deadly sins with their offshoots, the seven principal
virtues, and the Sacraments."
Though commissioned by Pope Damascus in 382 AD, St. Jerome's Vulgate
did not become the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church
until the Council of Trent, in 1546. The intervening years saw
the creation of distinctly different Bibles through significant
variants in the copying process. No single exemplar could be considered
authoritative, with the possible exception of the Codex Amiatinus, produced in England, but now in
the Laurentian Library, Florence. This, The expense of production, the general illiteracy of
the public and some churchmen, may be among the reasons why whole
Vulgate Bibles were fairly rare in the English Middle Ages.
There were, however, psalters, pentateuchs, apocalypses, and large format multi-volume bibles produced
MS London, British Library, Royal 1 E VII
MS London, British Library, Royal MS 1 E VIII
Single-volume Vulgate Bibles did not appear in England before the twelfth
century, mostly in large monasteries or other wealthy owners. For
MS London, British Library, Lansdowne 453
to Thomas More, Lord Chancellor of England under Henry VIII "The whole
Bible long before Wycliff's day was by virtuous and well-learned men
translated into the English tongue, and by good and godly people with
devotion and soberness well and reverently read" (Dialogues III, p. 138, 1530).
Indeed there were English glosses and full translations of parts of
the Bible before that time, like the 8th century Blickling Psalter (MS
New York Pierpont Morgan Library M.776), in Latin, with
interlinear Anglo-Saxon glosses, like the 11th century Cædmon
Manuscript (Bodleian Library MS. Junius 11) contining an Old English
verse translation of parts of Genesis, Exodus and Daniel.
The first single-volume translation of the whole Vulgate Bible in
medieval England was likely that of the translation team working under
John Wycliffe. I have found no evidence of a single-volume complete
Bible in Anglo-Norman preceding this. Margaret Deanesly wrote in her The Lollard
Bible: And Other Medieval Biblical Versions (Eugene Oregon: Wiph and
Stock Publishers, 2002): "A complete Anglo-Norman Bible existed
in 1361, but it must have been rare . . . Jean de Sy's continental
version of the Bible, executed in 1355 by order of King John of France
was merely a revision of the old Anglo-Norman Bible, . . ." (p.
142). There is a nearly complete Anglo-Norman Bible (up to the
Epistles): MS Paris BNF fr. 1. Samuel Berger describes it in La
Bible française au moyen age : étude sur les plus anciennes versions de
la Bible écrites en prose de langue d'Oïl (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale,
1884) as "à peu près complet" in (p. 230). We do not know if the
Anglo-Norman text used by Jean de Sy in his partial Bible translation
(MS Paris BNF fr. 15397) was a complete
Bible. A number of facsimiles of manuscripts containing Anglo-Norman translation of scripture can be viewed at
Textual Sources of Gallo-Romance Vernacular Bibles
John Wycliffe most certainly had a hand in the Bible translation named
after him, more likely in the New Testament books than in the Old
Testament translation, which is attributed to Nicholas of
Hereford. Other likely contributors are John Purvey and John
Trevisa. The Wicliffe or "Lollard" Bible contained not only
translations of the Old and New Testaments, but books which we refer to
as the Apocrypha, along with the Esdras and Paul's epistle to the
Laodiceans. Wycliffe died in 1384, but the first translation
a period of 1382 to 1395. Wycliffe was convinced Englishmen needed a
version of the Bible that they could understand and read.
Unfortunately, he and his work became associated with the Lollard
movement. On 4 May 1415, the Council of Constance declared Wycliffe a
heretic, decreeing that his books be burned and his remains be exhumed.
It is amazing we have as many copies as we do.
Since our closing era is that of Wycliffe, we have not included
incunabula. The study is illustrated with links to over 250 medieval manuscripts, partial
manuscripts, editions, transcriptions, critical studies and
have linked by categories manuscript facsimilies and facsimile
page collections: from the categories below. This study is part of the
Andy Holt Virtual Library
and linked on the "History, International Studies, Philosophy & Religion" resource page.
I wish to express my gratitude to three teachers who have facilitated
and inspired my study of the Bible in the context of church history:
Ira Lee Andrews † (1938-2013), my Bible teacher at Randolph-Macon
College in Ashland Virginia, Ford Lewis Battles (1915-1979), my Church
History and Latin teacher at The Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, and
Aubrey C. Briggs † (1920-2014), my Bible teacher at Ken Mawr
Presbyterian Church, in Pittsburgh.
Picture-Book Bibles - Though
not translations, they represent the a willing effort in the Christian
community to make the Word of God understood to those who could not
read Latin. They are often sequenced graphics, like our comic books:
Gospel of Nicodemus - This is not part of the Vulgate apocrapha,
but was popular during the Middle Ages. It's point of origin is likely
mid fourth century.
Psalters here are nore
than just the Book of Psalms, containing devotional material, and a
large part of the devine office; an essential tool for the liturgy.
They were portable and often used to teach reading. A high percentage
of those from Anglo-Saxon England have interlinear or marginal glosses
|psalter english gloss (Google images).
MS Cambridge Eng. Corpus Christi College, 272 - Psalter of Count Achadeus (Old-English glossed).
MS Cambridge Eng. Corpus Christi College, 278 - 14th cen. Middle English/Anglo-Norman/Latin Psalter.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 411: Psalter. (Latin/Anglo-Saxon).
MS Cambridge Trinity College R.17.1 - Tripartitum Psalterium Eadwini (12th cent. Latin, Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon).
MS Cambridge, University Library, Ff. 1. 23 - Winchcombe Psalter (Latin/Old English, 1025-1050).
MS Cambridge University Library Ff.1.27 - Winchcombe Psalter (glossed Old English).
MS Cambridge Trinity College R.17.1 - The Canterbury Psalter (Latin with English gloss).
MS Cambridge Mass. Harvard University Haughton Library Codex 196 - English trans. 7 penetential psalms.
MS Cambridge Mass. Harvard University Haughton Library Richardson 36 - 14th cent. Middle English Psalter.
MS London, British Library Additional 37517 - Psalter [Old English gloss to some psalms ff. 96-104].
MS London British Library Arundel 60 - 11th cent. Psalter (detailed record, 31 pp. contains Old English glosses).
MS London British Library Arundel 155 - The Eadui Psalter, etc. with Old English glosses (11th-12th cent.).
MS London British Library Cotton Tiberius C VI - Latin Psalter with Old English, Anglo-Norman French.
MS London British Library Cotton Vespasian A I - Psalter. 9ff 2–160, (Old Eng. gloss from 9th cent).
MS London British Library Cotton Vespasian D vi - "Kentish Psalm (OE paraphrase Psalm 50 [10th-11th cent]).
MS London British Library Cotton Vitellius A.XV, f.132 - (tr. of Gospel of
Nicodemus partial Old English verse paraphrase of Judith) autotype.
Vitellius psalter (Latin with Old English Introductions) ed. from MS London B.M. Cotton Vitellius E. xviii.
MS British Library Cotton Vespasian A I - The Vespasian Psalter (Latin with English glosses 8th-15th cent.).
MS London, British Library Royal 2 B V - The Royal Psalter (mid-10th - mid-11th century, glossed).
MS London British Library Stowe 2 - 11th cent Latin Psalter, detailed record, 6 pp. continuous English glosses).
MS London British Library Cotton Vitellius A. XV - Gospel of Nicodemus (ff. 60r–86v).
MS Cambridge, Mass. Harvard Houghton Library Richardson 36 - Bible. O.T. Psalms.
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library 88 - Psalms and canticles (Wycliffe, 1384).
MS New York Pierpont Morgan Library 776 - Blickling Psalter (Old English glosses, Image ID: HKH28A).
MS Oxford Bodleian Library Tanner 16 (Richard Rolle, Commentary on the Psalms c. 1400).
MS Oxford Bodleian Library 425 - Surtees Psalter mid-14th cent., some English).
MS Oxford Bodleian Library 953 - (Richard Rolle, English 14th cent. Psalter and Commentary).
MS Oxford Bodleian Library Auct. d. 2. 4 - Psalter with interlinear English glosses.
MS Oxford Bodleian Library Junius 27 - Codex Vossianus (Psalter with Anglo-Saxon gloss, 925-950AD).
Paris BNF Latin 8824 - Psalterium duplex, latinum et anglo-saxonicum
MS Paris, BNF Lat. 8846 - aglo-catalan psalter (glossed in Old English and Old French).
MS. Philadelphia Penn Libraries Codex 196 - (7 Penitential Psalms, English religious poems, 1400).
MS Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Bibl. Rhenotraiectinae I Nr 32.
Utrecht Psalter (Ill. + English and Dutch commentary, 9th century).
Apocalypse - The vast majority of translations of this book in England are in Anglo-Norman.
Old Testament (Includes single books and groups like the Hexateuch and the Heptateut, but not psalms)
New Testament, books, or complete
|picture book gospels manuscript (Google).
MS Cambridge Corpus Christi College 140 - The Bath Old English Gospels (Stanford U. Parker Library).
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library 434: New Testament in Middle English.
MS England, Lichfield, Lichfield Cathedral 1 - St. Chad Gospels (inl. Old Welch, p. 141 in an erasure).
MS England, Lichfield, Lichfield Cathedral 1 - St Chad Gospels (236 images).
MS London, British Library MS 2 A XX - Royal Prayerbook. Lord's Prayer and Apostle's Creed (8th-12th cent.).
MS London, British Library Cotton Domitian A VII - Gospel extracts (9th-16th cent. Latin/Old English).
MS London British Library Additional 9381 - Bodmin Gospels (9th-11 cent., Latin, Old English and Cornish).
MS London British Library Cotton Nero D.IV- Lindisfarne Gospels (interlinear Northumbian gloss ca. 970).
MS London British Library Royal 1 A XIV - Wessex Gospels (1150-1200).
MS Manchester The John Rylands Library Chetham's Mun.A.2.160 - Middle English New Testament.
New Haven Yale Univ. Beinecke MS 578 - contains a West-Saxon Gospel of St. Mark (11th-14th cent.).
MS Oxford Bodleian Library Auct. D. 2. 19 - Rushworth Gospels (9th cent., interlinear translation, 10th cent.).
Homilies, commentary, and exegesis - for their discussion of Bible passages.
|MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 32 - (Commentary in English on Mark, Luke and Pauline Epistles).|
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 134: Berengaudus, Expositio super septem uisiones libri Apocalypsis.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 162 - Old English homilies.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 178 - Old English Homilies.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 188: Old English Homilies, mostly from Ælfric's First Series.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 198: Old English Homilies, mostly by Ælfric (10th or 11th cent.).
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 201 - Old English and Latin homilies.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 296: John Wyclif and his followers, Tracts in Middle English.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Parker Library 303 - Old English Homilies.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 336: Wycliffite Sermons.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 387: Richard Rolle of Hampole, Commentary on the Psalms.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 421 - Old English Homilies.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 419 - Old English and Latin homilies.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Parker Library, CCCC 421- Old English and Latin homilies.
MS Cambridge Trinity College B.1.38 - an exposition of the gospels (Latin & Middle English).
MS Cambridge Trinity College B.15.34 - Homilies, exhaustive description of manuscript (no facsimiles).
MS Cambridge Trinity College Library 335 B.14.52 - Poems and Sernons in English.
MS Cambridge University Library Ii.1.33 - Old English homilies and saints' lives, by Ælfric.
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library Brotherton Collection 502 - Festial of English Sermons (late 15th cent.
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 109 - Sermons in English.
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 109 - Fifteenth Century Sermons Collection (1432?).
MS London, British Library Cotton Caligula A VII - Heliand and a charm (life of Jesus in Old Saxon).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 85 - Wycliffe Treatises (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 86 - Wycliffe Treatises (1384).
MS Oxford Bodleian 788 - Wycliffe Sermons on the Sunday Gospels after Trinity (Latin, preached in English).
MS Oxford Bodleain Douce 369 - New Testament, in the earlier Wycliffite (several pages, 1400).
MS Oxford Bodleain Junius 1 - Ormulum (2 pp. gospel homilies, 1180).
The Junius Manuscript (MS Oxford Bodleian Library Junius 1, biblical exegesis in Old English, 8 pages).
MS Philadelphia Penn Libraries Codex 197 - (Wycliffite homilies : treatise on the love of God and how one should attain to it).
MS Philadelphia Penn Libraries Codex 201 - New Testament, translation of John Wycliffe (late 14th-early 15th cent.).
MS Princeton, Scheide Library 71 - Blickling homilies (between 971 and 1025).
Wycliffe and co-editors/ followers: whole bibles, groups of books and individual books
|MS Berkeley Huntington Library 134 – Wycliffite New Testamrnt (4 pages).
MS Berkeley Huntingdon Library 501 - Wycliffe Materials (5 pages).
MS Bloomington, Indiana University Lilly Library, Ricketts 30 - Wycliffite Bible (1425-1450, 2 pages).
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Parker Library, CCCC 147 - (later Wycliffe).
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 336 - Wycliffite Sermons (Bible quotations and context).
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 440 - Wycliffie Gospels.
MS Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Houghton Library - Wycliffe. New Testament.
MS Cambridge Mass. Harvard Houghton Library Richardson 3 - New Testament John Wycliffe, revised by John Purvey (ca. 1400).
MS Dallas Texas Bridwell Library BRMS 7 - Middle English New Testament. Wycliffite Version (10 pages, 1420-1425).
MS Dublin Trinity College 75 - Wycliffe Bible (ff. 9r, 100r).
MS Dublin Trinity College 75 - Wycliffe Bible (ff. 9r, 100r).
MS England, Lichfield, Lichfield Cathedral 10 - Wicliffe New Twestament (image galery).
MS RBC 529 [Wycliffe N.T., purchased by Southby's London in 1985, item 109], ca. 1425.
MS London British Library Arundel 104 - (detailed record) Bible in two volumes, later Wycliffe (1st quarter 15th cent).
MS London British Library Egerton 618 - Bible, early Wycliffite version (detailed record last 1/4 14th 1st of 15th cen).
MS London British Library Egerton 617 - Wycliffite Bible (7 images).
MS Univ. of Manchester Cheatham Library A.2.160 - Wycliffite New Testament (early C15th).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 3 - Wycliffe N.T. Gospels (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 75 - Wycliffe New Testament (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 76 - Wycliffe New Testament (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 77 - Wycliffe New Testament (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 78 - Wycliffe's N.T. beginning with Mark (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 81 - Wicliffe New Testament (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 82 - Later Version Wycliffe Old Testament (1384).
MS Univ. of Manchester Chetham's Library English 91 - Holy Bible [beginning with "Wisdom"] (Wycliffe, 1384).
Here is "content migration" information for the following Manchester Library facsimiles of Wycliffe manuscripst.
English MS 3- Wycliffe Gospels, mid 15th century
English MS 75- Later Version
Wycliffe New Testament, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
English MS 76- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, beginning of 15th century
English MS 77- Later Version
Wycliffe New Testament, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
English MS 78- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, beginning of 15th century
English MS 79- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, beginning of 15th century
English MS 80- Later Version Wycliffe New Testament, mid 15th century (?1444)
English MS 81- Earlier
Version Wycliffe New Testament, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
English MS 82- Later Version Wycliffe Old Testament, first half of 15th century
English MS 83- Later Version
Wycliffe Parablis of Solomon, etc., end of 14th/beginning of 15th
English MS 84- Later Version
Wycliffe Acts of the Apostles, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
English MS 85- Wycliffe Treatises, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
English MS 86- Wycliffe Treatises, end of 14th/beginning of 15th century
English MS 88- Later Version Wycliffe Psalms, second half of 15th century
English MS 89- Wycliffe Old Testament, beginning of 15th century
English MS 90- Pricke of
Conscience; Wycliffe commentary on the Lord's Prayer, end of
beginning of 15th century
English MS 91- Later Version Wycliffe Bible, first half of 15th century
Some results are visible in Chetham's Library links.
MS New Haven Yale Beinecke Takamiya MS 28 - Wycliffite New testament (ca. 1400).
MS New Haven Yale Beinecke Takamiya MS 31 - Wycliffite New testament (ca. 1400).
MS New Haven Yale University Beinecke 125 - Wycliffite New Testament (beginning 15th cent.).
MS New York, Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library Plimpton Add. MS 03 (Wycliffe New Testament, English).
MS New York Public Library Digital Collection - Wycliffe Translation (21 page views).
MS New York, Columbia University, Rare Book & Manuscript Library Plimpton 268 - Wycliffe Harmony of the Gospels (1400-1450).
MS Oxford Bodleian 183 - New and part of Old Testaments and apocrypha (later Wyclif'fe, beginning 15th cent., selected pages).
MS Oxford Bodleian 277 - Bible, later Wycliffe version (1415-1430, 15 pages).
Oxford Bodleian 959 Old Testament, from Genesis to Baruch iii.
20, with prologues.(ff. 34v-35r, 44v, 45r, 233v-234r, 288r Wycliffe).
MS Oxford Bodleian Douce 369 f.303r - Bible, Isaiah to the end (earlier Wycliffite, ff. 303r, 338).
Oxford Bodleian Library, Fairfax 11 - New Testament (ff. 122v,
141r, 176v, 185v-186r later Wycliffe, beginning 15rth cent.).
MS Oxford Christ Church 145 - Wycliffe Bible (1320-1384).
Ms. Philadelphia Univ. of Pennsylvania Libraries Codex 201 - New Testament tr. John Wycliffe (late 14th cent. to early 15th).
MS Princeton University. Scheide Library.. Scheide M13 -John Purvey's version of Wycliffe's translation (ca. 1410).
MS Wycliffite Bible [manuscript] : ms., [ca. 1425], Contributor,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (photo facsimile).
Wycliffe Bible Manuscript Images (Google).
16 best 1390 Wycliffe N.T. Manuscript images on Pinterest.
Print Transcriptions, critical editions, readings, translations
|[4-col. transcription of Gospels in Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Wycliffe, Tyndale, Joseph Bosworth, ed., 1888].
1382 Wycliffe Bible.
Anglo-Saxon and early English psalter: now first printed from manuscripts in the British museum (1847).
ANGLO-SAXON GOSPELS (transcription of text from both manuscripts; 140 & 38).
Armour / Armor of God Ephesians 6 Recited in Middle English John Wycliffe Bible (YouTube).
Bible (Wycliffe, 1380s) - Wikisource.
Bible (Wycliffe)/Psalms (Wikisource).
Bibles Online - John Wycliffe New Testament (1390).
Biblioþēce [Old English Bible texts].
Bright, James William, ed. Evangelium secundum Mattheum: The Gospel of Saint Matthew in West-Saxon (1904).
Buddensieg, Rudolph, ed. John Wyclif's de veritate sacrae scripturae (Wyclif society Trubner & co., 1907).
The Christmas Story in Old English – Luke Ch. 2 in Anglo-Saxon (YouTube reading).
Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse.
Cursor mundi : the cursur o the world : a Northumbrian poem of the XIVth century... (1874).
Cursor Mundi: Lines 1-4918 of text, with essays on the sources... 1874,  1893.
Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter, Catholic Curch (1889).
Eadwine's Canterbury psalter (1889).
The earliest complete English prose Psalter . . . eleven canticles, (1891).
Ecclesiastes (Wycliffe, 1395) read aloud.
Evangelium secundum Johannem: The Gospel of Saint John in West-Saxon.
Euangelium secundum Lucam: The Gospel of Saint Luke in West-Saxon (1906).
Euangelium secundum Marcum: The Gospel of Saint Mark in West-Saxon.
Evangelium secundum Mattheum: The Gospel of Saint Matthew in West-Saxon.
A Fourteenth Century English Biblical Version (1904) - part of the New Testament.
Genesis 1 Old English/ Anglo Saxon Early Heptateuch 11th Century (Language Harmony Project), YouTube.
Genesis 1-2:3 Wycliffe Bible Middle English (Language Harmony Project) Creation on YouTube.
Genesis B - an Anglo-Saxon rendering of the Fall of Adam and Eve.
Full text of "The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels in parallel columns" Internet Archive (2011).
Full text of "The Gospel Of Nicodemus.pdf (Modern English).
The Golden Legend Compiled by Jacobus de Voragine, 1275 Englished by William Caxton, 1483 - Medieval Sourcebook.
The beginning of the Gospel of John in Old English (1:1-14 on YouTube).
The Gospel of Nicodemus, Formerly Called the Acts of Pontius Pilate.
The Gospel of Saint John in West-Saxon (1904).
The Gospel of Saint Matthew in West-Saxon (1904).
The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with the Versions of Wycliffe and Tyndale.
Harsley, Fred, ed. Eadwine's Canterbury psalter (1889).
Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 1.
Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 2.
Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 3.
Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal books (1850) - Wycliffe 4.
The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal books (1384, Wycliffe).
Hulme, William. The middle English Harrowing of Hell and Gospel of Nicodemus (1907).
John Wycliffe's Translation.
John Wyclif's de veritate sacrae scripturae: now first edited from the manuscripts with critical and historical notes (1907).
John Wyclif's Bible (ed.1395).
M.R. James, Translation and Note. THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS, OR ACTS OF PILATE (1924).
The Junius Manuscript (MS Oxford Bodleian Library Junius 1, biblical exegesis in Old English, 8 pages).
The Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels: Now first printed from the original manuscripts in the ... (1865).
Livingston, Michael, ed. The Middle English Metrical Paraphrase of the Old Testament (TEAMS, 2011).
Lord's Prayer: Anglo Saxon (Old English)-the Exeter Book Pre 1072 .
Lord's Prayer: West Saxon Dialect (Old English, Anglo Saxon): Wessex Gospels/ Southern England (YouTube).
Luke 2 Wessex Gospels (West Saxon, Anglo Saxon, Old English) "The Birth of Jesus Christ" (YouTube).
Matthew (Mattheu) 5: Beatitudes, Sermon on the Mount, John Wycliffe Bible Recited in Middle English (YouTube).
Middle English John Wycliffe Bible Recordings.
Morris, Richard. Old English Homilies and Homiletic Treatises.
Morris, Richard. Old English Homilies of the Twelfth Century (EETS).
Napier, Arthur S. ed. History of the holy Rood-tree (Ormulum).
O’Neill, Patrick P., ed. King Alfred’s Old English Prose Translation of the First Fifty Psalms.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud 509 - The Production and Use of English Manuscripts 1060 to 1220.
Paues, Anna C, ed. A fourteenth century English Biblical version.
Psalm 22 (23) Interdeterminate Saxon (Anglo Saxon, Old English, Wessex, West Saxon): Paris Psalter.
Psalm 23--Middle English (based on Cotton Vespasian D vii).
Psalm 23 n Old English, from the Paris Psalter (YouTube).
Psalm 23 John Wycliffe Bible Recited in Middle English (YouTube).
Psalm 61 (Salm 60) Prayer of David for Protection: John Wycliffe Bible Middle English (YouTube).
Psalm 91 (90) Indeterminate Saxon (Anglo Saxon, West Saxon, Old English): Paris Psalter (YouTube).
Psalm 91 (Psalm 90)- John Wycliffe Bible Recited in Middle English (YouTube).
Psalm 144 Prayer for Protection, Wycliffe Bible Middle English (YouTube).
Rolle, Richard, The Psalter of the Psalms of David and certain canticles (1844).
Scott, Evelyn M. Text of "(A) translation of the West Midland psalter".
THE SHOREHAM PSALMS ca. 1320.
Skeat, Walter, ed. The Holy Gospels in Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian, and Old Mercian Versions...
Thorpe F.S.A. Benjamin, ed. . . . . The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Holy Gospels (1843).
Vaughan, Robert. Tracts and treatises of John de Wycliffe.
Vitellius psalter (Latin pselms with Old English Introductions).
Walker, Alexander Esq., tr. The Gospel of Nicodemus (Bible hub).
Wessex Gospels c.1175 (Textus Receptus Bibles).
West Saxon Gospels, c. 1175 (transcription).
White, R..M. and Robert Hollt, eds.The Ormulum / with the notes and glossary (transcription).
Wulfstan's Eschatological Homilies, ed. and tr. Joyce Tally Lionarons (2000).
Wycliffe, The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal books.
Wycliffe New Testament (Bible Database).
Wycliffe's New Testament. Tr. John Wycliffe & John Purvey (ed. Terence P. Noble 2001).
|Allen, Matthew. The Earliest New Testament Manuscripts.
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Caie, Graham D. "Lay Literacy and the Medieval Bible".
Cooper , W. R. John Trevisa, the Translator of Wycliffe B: A consideration of the evidence.
Cranford , Lorin L The History of the Bible - Session 15: Topic 4.0 - The Beginning of the English Bible.
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Lindisfarne Gospels (British Library).
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wohunge of Ure Lauerd: Ureisuns of Ure Louerd and of Ure Lefdi,
&c.) of the twelfh and thirteenth centuries.
Peikola, Matti "Tables of Lections in Manuscripts of the Wycliffe Bible" (2013).
the project « Glossae.net » and the medieval Gloss of the Latin Bible.
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Rashko, Mary. "08.11.04, Dove, The First English Bible." The Medieval Review (08.11.04).
Rev. of Poleg. Approaching the Bible in Medieval England. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013.
Salisbury, Cathedral, 150 - Continuous Gloss psalter (11th-12th cent.).
Toswell, M. J. "The Late Anglo-Saxon Psalter: Sncestor of the Book of Hours." Florilegium (1995-96).
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Vaughan, Robert, ed.. Tracts and treatises of John de Wycliffe.
Wessex Gospels (Wikipedia).
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Wycliffe Bible Early Version (Uploaded by Jean Poutine).
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Bibliographies, webliographies and lists
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