Société François Villon, Bulletin

Volume 11, No. 1 (Winter 1995)

Robert D. Peckham, editor

HTML Conversion from ISO 8859-1 by David A. Gatwood


Conference Announcement: François Villon: The Drama and the Text at St Hilda's College, Oxford (22-25 March 1996). Contact Dr. Jane Taylor, St. Hilda's College, Oxford OX4 1DY.

Bibliography: the most recent titles which have not appeared in previous issues of this bulletin, including some from the 1994 MLA International Bibliography and Bibliographie der französischen Literatur-wissenschaft (O. Klapp).

Abbreviations: BJ=Ballades en Jargon ; L=Lais ; PV=Poèmes Variés ; SFVB=Société François Villon, Bulletin ; T=Testament .


Books

Bockl, Manfred. Erdbeermund : das abenteuerliche Leben des François Villon. Hamburg: Facta, 1990.

Kozlova, Lilit. Marina T Svataeva, kto Vy? Ul i anovsk: "Laboratori i a kulturologii", 1993 [Villon's and Mikhail Lermontov's influence on T Svetaeva].

Meszoly, Dezso. Villon Arnyekaban. Budapest: Szapirodalmi, 1983.

Ospina Londono, Uriel. La vida turbulenta de François Villon. Prologo Bernardo Montoya Alvarez. Coleccion Autores antioquenos ; 77. Medellin : Gobernacion de Antioquia, 1993.

Seitz, Gustav. Vier Dichter : François Villon, Heinrich Mann, Bertolt Brecht,Thomas Mann. Plastik, Zeichnung, Druckgraphik Ausstellung, Museum fur Kunst und Kulturgeschichte der Hansestadt Lubeck-St. Annen-Museum 4. Dezember 1994 bis 22. Januar, 1995. Ed. Gerhard Gerkens ; tr. Gerhard Gerkens, Ursel Grohn und Brigitte Heise. Lubeck : Das Museum, 1994.

Villon, François. Complete Poems. Ed. and tr. Barbara N. Sargent-Baur. Toronto Medieval Texts and Translations, 9. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994 [reviewed below].

---- . OEuvres. Ed. Dominique Aury. Fleuron, 9. Genève : Slatkine, 1994.

---- . OEuvres. Editées par Auguste Longnon. 4e édition revue et augmentée par Lucien Foulet. Nouveau tirage suivi de notes sur le texte par André Lanly. Classiques Français du Moyen Age, 2. Paris: H. Champion, 1992.

---- . Opere. Grandi classici, 7. Milano : A. Mondadori, ©1990.

---- . Poems. English. Selections. Twelve poems. Tr. Arpad Barna. [S.l : s.n.], 1987
[privately published].

---- . Poesía. Tr. Carlos Alvar. Mexico City: Origen, 1992.

---- . Selected Poems. Tr. Peter Dale. London: Penguin, 1993 [1978 edition reissued].

---- . Villon. OEuvres. 67 illustrations en couleur de Dubout. [ Paris ]: M. Trinckvel, 1993.

Fiction

Fischerová, Daniela. "Dog and Wolf". Tr. A. G. Brian. In Czech Plays. Ed. Barbara Day. 139-224. London: Nick Hearn Books, 1994.

Hodjak, Franz. Franz, Geschichtensammler : ein Monodrama. Edition Suhrkamp; 1698= n.F., Bd. 698 Frankfurt am Main : Suhrkamp, c1992.

Koopmans, Jelle et Paul Verhuyck, eds. Les Repues franches de maistre FrançoisVillon et de ses compagnons. Textes Littéraires Français, 455. Geneva: Droz, 1995.

Laws, Robert Anthony. Dance of the Hanging Men: the Story of François Villon,Killer, Thief and Poet. West Bridgford, Nottingham: Paupers' Press, ©1993.

Mayer, Bernadette. "François Villon follows the thin lion". In [Sound recording of poetry reading from the The Bernadette Mayer reader ]. New York, NY: Mark's Church In-the-Bowery Poetry Project, [1991] [1 sound cassette (40 min.) : analog].

Neuss, Wolfgang. Neuss' Testament : eine satirische Zeitbombe nach Texten vonFrançois Villon. Ed. Volker Kuhn. Taschenbucher-Syndikat :EVA ; NO. 55. Frankfurt: Syndikat, 1985.

Villarreal, José Javier. "Balada a la memoria de François Villon/ Ballad in memory of François Villon[tr. Michael Koch]." In Light from a Nearby Window :Contemporary Mexican Poetry. Ed. Juvenal Acosta. 200-201. San Francisco : City Lights Books, ©1993.


Music

Debussy, Claude. "Trois Ballades de François Villon." In Songs. Selections. Songs ofClaude Debussy. Ed. James R. Briscoe. The Vocal Library. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: H. Leonard Publishing Corp., ©1993 [vol. 2, piece 9].

Francaix, Jean. Triade de toujours. Vocal score: drei Duette für Sopran, Bariton,Blaserquintett, Streicherquintett und Harfe = Three duets for soprano, baritone,wind quintet, string quintet and harp; auf Texte von Villon, La Fontaine undAristophanes ; Klavierauszug vom Komponisten. Mainz. New York : Schott, c1992. ED 7964 Schott. [1 vocal score (55 p.). Débat du coeur et du corps de Villon (François Villon) -- Tircis et Amarante (Jean de La Fontaine) -- Vif entretien entre la dèche et l'argent (Aristophanes)].

Klein, Gideon. Prvni hrich ; Dva madrigaly = Sundenfall ; Zwei Madrigale = Thefirst sin ; Two madrigals. Berlin : Bote & Bock, ©1993 [2 vocal scores in Czech, German and English: 16, 19 pages].


Articles and Chapters

Anonymus. "500 anos de la primera edición de las poemas de François Villon." Noticias culturales. Bogata. Instituto Caro y Cuervo. No. 44 (1989): 14-15.

Andrieux-Reix, Nelly. "X, Y, Z et quelques autres: Etudes de lettres dans le Testament de Villon." L'Information Grammaticale 57 (mars 1993): 11-15.

Bastide, Mario. "La Critique religieuse dans l'oeuvre de Villon." L' Illustration Littétaire 45 No. 1 (janvier-février 1993): 3-9 [issue of Villon's faith his views of the Church].

Bernard, Michel. "Le Secret de Villon à l'épreuve de l'ordinateur: Tristan Tzara et les anagrammes." Romania 113, Nos. 1-2 (1992-1995): 242-52.

Coldiron, A. B. E. "Rossetti on Villon. Dowson on Verlaine: 'Impossibility' and Appropriation in Translation." The Comparatist 17 (May 1993): 119-40 (Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Christopher Ernest Dowson].

Cropp, Gynnis M. "La 'Ballade des seigneurs' de François Villon et les chroniques." Le Moyen-Age 100, No. 2 (1994): 221-236 [historical rather than literary sources for T357-85].

Demarolle, Pierre. "Temps et espaces dans le Testament de François Villon." LeMoyen Age 99, No. 2 (1993): 281-91.

Draskau, Jennifer. "Syntactic Equivalence." In Textlinguistik und Fachsprache. Ed. Reiner Arntz. 469-83. Studien zu Sprache und Technik, 1. Hildesheim: Olms, 1988 [about translating T453-532].

Ferrand, Françoise C. "Villon. les enfants perdus." Magazine Littéraire [Paris] 312 (juillet-août 1993): 47-49 [linked to Charles d'Orléans].

Favier, Jean. "Villon (François de Montcorbier dit)." In His Dictionnaire de laFrance médiévale. 972.73. [Paris]: Fayard, [©1993].

Gros, Gérard. "Villon sans masque, ou, la plume et le papier." Revue des languesromanes 97, No. 2 (1993): 363-74 [references to writing in T].

Lançon, Philippe. "Les Deux Nigauds." L'Infini: Littérature - Philosophie - Art - Science - Politique 37 (Printemps 1992): 110-20 [Villon and Charles d'Orléans].

Lanly, André. "Sur un Verbe de Villon, «acouter» (et «s'acouter»)." PerspectivesMédi évales 19 (1993): 106-109.

Meiller, Albert. "La belle qui fut heaulmiere de Villon et un fait de langue méconnu."Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et de Renaissance. 56, No. 2 (1994): 469-73 [T451-63].

Mitterand, Henri. "Testament (Le)/François Villon. Poésie lyrique./ environ 1460. In his Dictionnaire des grands oeuvres de la littérature française. 607-608. Paris: Dictionnaire Le Robert, 1994.

Peckham, Robert D. "The Current State of Villon Studies. Part IX." Fifteenth- Century Studies 21 (1994): 193-208.

---- . "Dark Laughter in the Chambers of the King: François Villon in America." Medievalism in North America.. Studies in Medievalism, 6. Ed. Kathleen Verduin. 123-42. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1994.

Pickens, Rupert T. "Villon on the Road to Paris: : Contexts and Intertexts of Huitain XIII of the Testament ." in Conjunctures: Studies in Honor of Hans Erich Keller: Medieval French and Occitan Literature and Romance Linguistics. 425-53. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, 1993.

Queffelec, Ambroise. "Du statut des modes quasi-nominaux en moyen-français: Le Témoignage du Testament de F. Villon." L'Information Grammaticale 57 (mars 1993): 37-40 [stylistics].

Regalado, Nancy Freeman. "Gathering the Works: The 'œuvres de Villon' and the Intergeneric Passage of the Medieval French Lyric into Single-Author Collections." L'Esprit Créateur 33, No. 4 (Winter 1993): 87-100.

---- . "1456, François Villon écrit le Lais ." in De La Littérature française. Eds. Denis Hollier, et al. 115-21. [Paris]: Bordas, [1993].

Sargent-Baur, Barbara N. "Truth-claims as captio benevolentiae in Villon's Testament." in Conjunctures: Studies in Honor of Hans Erich Keller: MedievalFrench and Occitan Literature and Romance Linguistics. 505-14. Kalamazoo,
Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, 1993.

Van Hemelryck, Tania. "Villon lecteur de Chastelain." Les Lettres Romanes 47 Nos. 1-2 (février-mars 1994): 1-15.

Youens, Susan. "Trois ballades de François Villon." In Perspectives on Music :Essays on Collections at the Humanities Research Center. Eds. Dave Oliphant and Thomas Zigal. Texas : Humanities Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, ©1985.

Zink, Gaston. "François Villon." In his Littérature française du moyen âge. 294-98. [Paris]: Presses Universitaires de France, [1992].

---- . "Noms et adjectifs suffixes dans le Testament de Villon (éd. A. Longnon-L. Foulet Paris, Champion)." L'Information Grammaticale 56 (janvier 1993): 42-45 [alinguistic study].


Internet Documents (with URLs)

Villon, François. "Ballade des dames du temps jadis" [T329-56]:

Villon, François. "Ballade des pendus" [PVxi]:

Villon, François. "LaBallade des Pendus" [PVxi]:

Villon, François. "Mais ou sont les neiges d'antan" (commentary and facing page translation of T329-56 in Romanian):

Villon, François. "Regrets" [T169-184, 201-208, 225-240]:

Villon, François. "Rondo - Mort, j'appelle de ta rigueur..." [T978-92]:

Villon, François. "Three Translations from François Villon [T329-56, T978-92,T873-909]". In Dante Gabriel Rossetti, POEMS (1870):


Dissertations

Tatos, Mariana V. "The Universal and Individual in the Poetry of François Villon and their Projection in the Rumanian Culture." Diss. University of North Carolina, 1989 [principally Villon and Alexandru Alexianu].

Dessureault, Jacques. "François Villon." M.A. thesis. Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 1984.


Films and Recordings

The Beloved Rogue, videorecording. Directed by Alan Crosland ; screen play by Paul Bern. Santa Monica, California: Distributed by The Voyager Company, [1991] 1 videodisc (99 min.) : si., b&w ; 12 in. [1 videodisc (99 min.)].

Debussy, Claude. "Ballades de Franços Villon." In Maderna dirige Debussy. Milano: Arkadia ; New York : Distributed by Qualiton Imports, 2 CDMAD 011 Arkadia, 1991
[2 sound discs (147 min.) : digital, stereo. ; 4 3/4 in.].

Debussy, Claude. "No. 2: Ballades de François Villon." In Pelleas et Mellisande;14 Songs; 4 Arias & Songs [sound recording]. [France]: EMI, 1988 [3 sound disks, digital, monoral; 4 3/4 in.].

Debussy, Claude. "Trois Ballades de François Villon [ 3rd work on 1st CD]." In Maderna dirige Debussy. Milan: Arkadia ; New York : Distributed by Qualiton Imports, 1991 [2 CDMAD 011 Arkadia 2 sound discs (147 min.) digital, stereo. ; 4 3/4 in.].

Debussy, Claude. [Songs. Selections]. Melodies [sound recording]. Esprit français. [Hayes, Middlesex, England]: EMI Classics, [1991]. CMS 7 64095 2 EMI; CDM 7 64096 2 EMI; CDM 7 64097 2 EMI; CDM 7 64098 2 EMI; CDMC 64095 EMI; 64095 EMI [3 sound discs : digital, stereo. ; 4 3/4 in.].

Honegger, Arthur. "Rédemption de François Villon." In Semiramis et autres inédits d'orchestre. France : Timpani, 1C1016 Timpani, 1993 [1 sound disc : digital ; 4 3/4 in.].


Conference and Seminar Presentations

Norris J. Lacy (Washington University in Saint Louis), "Villon Lais: A Problem Revisited", at the Fifth Annual International Confenence of the Texas Medieval
Association, at Trinity University, Huston (7-9 September 1995).

Dr. Jane H.M. Taylor (Fellow in French, St. Hilda's College, Oxford) "Villon Voyeur: from Belle Helaine to Grosse Margot" Seminars on Medieval Literature and Culture, at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (25 September 1995).


Reviews

Bellon, Roger. Rev. of François Villon. Poésies Complètes , ed. Claude Thiry. LeMoyen Français 30 (1992): 128.

Faure, Marcel. Rev. of Villon hier et aujourd'hui. Actes du colloque pour le cinq- centième anniversaire de l'impression du Testament de Villon, Bibliothèquehistorique de la Ville de Paris, 17 décembre 1989 , ed. Jean Durens, et al. Revue desLangues Romanes 98, No. 1 (1994): 216-27.

Fein, David. Rev. of Villon hier et aujourd'hui. Actes du colloque pour le cinq- centième anniversaire de l'impression du Testament de Villon, Bibliothèquehistorique de la Ville de Paris, 17 décembre 1989 , ed. Jean Durens, et al. FrenchStudies 48, No. 4 (October 1994): 454-55.

Fox, John. Rev of Villon hier et aujourd'hui. Actes du colloque pour le cinq-centième anniversaire de l'impression du Testament de Villon, Bibliothèquehistorique de la Ville de Paris, 17 décembre 1989 , ed. Jean Durens, et al. Medium Aevum 64, No. 2 (1995): 335-336.

Harding, Jeremy. Rev. of François Villon. Complete Poems. Ed. and tr. Barbara N. Sargent-Baur. London Review of Books 17, No. 8 (10 April 1995): 16-19.

Harflancner, L. Rev. of François Villon: Ambigüité et Carnaval , by Jean Dufournet. Le Moyen Age 100, No. 2 (1994): 306-307.

Hausmann, Frank-Rutger. Rev. of François Villon et Charles d'Orléans (1456 à 1461);d'après les poésies diverses de Villon , by Gert Pinkernell. Revue belge dephilologie et d'histoire 71 (1993): 794-96.

---- . Rev, of François Villon. Poésies Complètes , ed. Claude Thiry. Revue belge dephilologie et d'histoire 71 (1993): 796-99.

---- . Rev, of Villov: OEuvres. Texte et traduction [1991 edition], by André Lanly. Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire 71 (1993): 789-90.

Heimsath, Dominik. "Das falsch Gedicht! 'Ich bin so wild nach deinem Erdbeermund...'. Süddeutsche Zeitung 98 (29.4.93): 30-31.

Joukovsky, Françoise. Rev. of Villon: Ambiguïté et carnaval , by Jean Dufournet. Revue des Langues Romanes 97, No. 2 (1993): 454-56.

Mühlethaler, Jean-Claude. Rev. of François Villon. Poésies Complètes , ed. Claude Thiry. Perspectives Médiévales 18 (1992): 145-46.

Roellenbleck, Georg. Rev. of Formen productiver Rezeption François Villon imdeutschen Sprachraum , by Wolfgang Pöckl. Romanisches Jahrbuch 43 (1992): 222- 24.

Roth, Oskar. Rev. of François Villon et Charles d'Orléans (1456 à 1461); d'après les poésies diverses de Villon , by Gert Pinkernell. Archiv für des Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen Band 231 (1994): 220-21.

Thiry, Claude. Rev. of François Villon et Charles d'Orléans (1456 à 1461); d'aprèsles poésies diverses de Villon , by Gert Pinkernell. Lettres Romanes 47 (1993): 133-35.

Vitz, Evelyn Birge. Rev. of Lecture du Testament: Huitains I et LXXVII à LXXXIV , by Jacques T. E. Thomas Speculum 69, No. 4 (July 1994): 903.

Verhuyck, Paul. Rev. of François Villon et Charles d'Orléans (1456 à 1461); d'aprèsles poésies diverses de Villon , by Gert Pinkernell. Modern Language Review 89, No. 2 (April 1994): 474.

---- . Rev. of François Villon. Poésies , ed. by Claude Thiry. Le Moyen Age 100, No. 2 (1994): 304- 305.


Studi Francesi (Rassegna Bibliografica: Quatrocento)

Giachino, Luca. Rev. of Bibliographie und Materialien 1489-1988 , Band I: Bibliographie , by Rudolf Sturm, in 110 (maggio-ogosto 1993): 359.

Paola Cifarelli. Rev. of "La Génération de Louis XI: Quelques Aspects.", by Jean Dufournet, in 111 (settembre-dicembre 1993): 583 [cited in SFVB 9 (1993): 4].

Cifereli, Paola. Rev. of "The (Un)naming Process in Villon's 'Grand Testament'." by Rouben C. Cholakian, in 111 (settembre-dicembre 1993): 581 [cited in SFVB 9 (1993): 3].

Wilde, Peter de. Rev. of Formen productiver Rezeption François Villon im deutschen Sprachraum , by Wolfgang Pöckl, in 111 (settembre-dicembre 1993): 581.

Mombello, Gianni. Rev. of L'Esprit de Villon, étude de style, 2e édition, by Pierre Demarolle, in 112 (gennaio-aprile 1994): 117.

Mombello, Gianni. Rev. of Lecture du Testament: Huitains I et LXXVII à LXXXIV , by Jacques T. E. Thomas, in 112 (gennaio-aprile 1994): 117-18.

Mombello, Gianni. Rev. of Villon: Ambiguïté et carnaval , by Jean Dufournet, in 113 (maggio-agosto): 311-12.

Becker, Karen. Rev. of "François Villon, Eustache Deschamps und Paris: Zur ästhetischen Innovation im 'Testament'." by Peter Brockmeier, in 114 (settembre- dicembre 1994): 520 [cited in SFVB 10 (1994): 3].

Mombello, Gianni. Rev. of François Villon et Charles d'Orléans (1456 à 1461);d'après les poésies diverses de Villon , by Gert Pinkernell, in 114 (settembre-dicembre 1994): 520-21.


Significant Citations

Booth, Bradford A. and Ernest Mehew, eds. [Letter 1775, to Gleeson White] TheLetters of Robert Louis Stevenson. Vol. 5: July 1884-August 1887. 370. New Heven: Yale Univ. Press, 1995 [on Stevenson's interest in Villon].

Booth, Bradford A. and Ernest Mehew, eds. [Letters 1928, to George Iles, and1939, to John Paul Bocock]. The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson. Vol. 6: August 1887- September 1890. 47-48, 56. New Heven: Yale Univ. Press, 1995 [on Stevenson's story, "A Lodging for the Night, and his essay, "François Villon: Student, Poet and Housebreaker-].

De Jong, Diederik C D. "Guide to records : Honegger's 'Semiramis' ; 'Largo'; Interlude from 'La Mort de Sainte Almeenne'; 'Vivace'; 'Fantasi"o; Suite from 'The Tempest'; 'La Rédemption de François Villon', and others by the Luxembourg Radio under

Leopold Hager and featuring Mariette Kemmer." American Record Guide 56 No. 5 (September 1993): 139.

Lemaire, Jacques. In his Les Visions de la vie de cour dans la littérature françaisedu moyen âge. [Mémoire présenté au concours de l'Académie Royale de Langues et de Littérature Françaises - octobre 1990]. 422-23, 4 56-58. Académie Royale de Langue et de Littérature Française. Bruxelles: Palais des Académies, 1994 [smaller citations indicated in the Index, p. 555].

James J. Wilhelm. Ezra Pound. The Tragic Yeats: 1925- 1972. 6, 16-19, 226. University Park, Pennsylvania The Pennsylvania State University Press, [©1994] [about his opera, Le Testament de Villon ].


Book Review

Villon, François. Complete Poems. Ed. and tr. Barbara N. Sargent-Baur. Toronto Medieval Texts and Translations, 9. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994 (346 pp.).

More than a quest for equivalence, literary translations are positive signs of an author's entrance or potential to enter into a foreign culture. The entry on "villon" as a common noun in Randle Cotgrave in his A Dictionarie of the French and EnglishTongue (London, 1611) reads "A cousener, conycatcher, cunning or wittie rogue; a nimble knave; a pleasant theefe; (for such a one was François Villon, whose death a halter suited to his life)." This and many other lines rendered from maistre François in Cotgrave's work tell us that Villon had been a subject for translation sometime before Louisa Costello's annotated rendition of the "Ballade des dames" inSpecimen ofthe Early Poetry of France (London: Pickering, 1835), 158-62. There have been dozens of Englishtranslations of Villon's poetry, and a number of American translations of the completeworks since the first by J. U. Nicholson in The Works of François Villon (New York: Covici, Friede,1928).

In reaction to the publication of Professor Barbara N. Sargent's (hereafter S) recent translation. one may well ask the question "why one more?". The two most recent are by Anthony Bonner, The Complete Works of François Villon (New York: Bantam Books, 1960) and Galway Kinnell, The Poems of François Villon , New Edition (Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1982). Both have similar features in theifacing text and translation and in their end notes. The latest edition of Kinnell is still in print.

The answer to this question should come in two parts. First, effective new translations can spawn new interest in a poet who's works present great difficulties for readers, more especially in the United States, where the interest in French seems to be waning and the number of appropriately educated readers also.

Second, since variety of presentation is important to anglophone cultural and individual diversity, we will compare the new translation with the two cited above. S's work presents a new edition founded on the choice of a single base manuscript for each poem, controlled for "texte intégrale"or edited where appropriate by judicious and philologically sound principles. The Kinnell and Bonner translations present the eclectic, critically complex tradition of the Longnon-Foulet edition, but without critical toilette. Kinnell's text is also without line-end punctuation. S's text is a new edition, resembling somewhat that of Rychner-Henry (1974-1977), with a varialectio at the foot of the page, when the base text reading is rejected, and with interpretive punctuation, except in the case of the "Ballades en Jargon". She has also indicated with asterisks the presence of endnotes, numbered according to line discussed. Here, it is important to note that S brings the reputation and skill of a scholar who has dealt as philologist and literary critic with Villon and other French medieval writers throughout her career. S has made her text and translation easy to cite, by giving line numbers every four lines, instead of the eight in the Bonner translation and the ten in the Kinnell translation. She has also chosen to use Arabic numerals for her stanzas, placing them above the stanza to avoid confusion with the line numbers. This choice is more legible than the Roman numerals of the Bonner translation or the lack of any in Kinnell.

Completeness of canon is another issue for comparison. The 1960 Bonner translation includes all poems from the Longnon-Foulet tradition, but adds in the six "Poèmes en Jargon" present in the 1489 Pierre Levet edition. Kinnell does not include these, saying only that the are "unintelligible" (xxiii). He omits the rondeau, which he deems non authorial. S, on the other hand has accepted the canon new canon (including order of poems) presented in the Rychner-Henry edition. I might add that she had the wisdom to include in her notes poems by Fradet and Charles d'Orléans, essential for the comprehension of PV iii ("Ballade franco-latine"). In the matter of the "Ballades en jargon", or thieves' jargon, S's text lives up to her book title, because she includes the five from the Stockholm manuscript (MS F) as well as the six from the Levet edition. I believe that in spite of the difficulties in translating these, one cannot pinpoint why they have been so frequently omitted. Marot must have put a curse on all future editors and translators by saying that he would leave the translation of these poems to those who who have a professional reason to be familiar with their lexical base.

Of the translation itself, Bonner chose moderately idiomatic English in blank verse form. Kinnell's quest for equivalence lead him to more colorful, bold and modern idiomatic forms also in blank verse. He yields to rhyme only in two stanzas. It is not surprising to see Kinnel's affinity for the critical theory of fellow American poet, David Kuhn (alias David Mus), praised and acknowledged in the translation's introduction (xiii). S does not seem to be directed by a single critical work. While she does not attempt rhyme, she systematically mirrors Villon's line length with its parallel in English prosody (four-beat lines for octosyllabic verse and five-beat lines for decasyllabic verse). Though she does not specifically, she has managed a rhyme here and there, and for one whole poem, PV.xiv (273). If she is more conservative semantically than Kinnell, we must remember two important things, she is not working as a poet. Her own edition, with its interpretive punctuation has dictated the sense, which she chooses to follow line-by-line. Certainly part of this is also a by-product of her choice to mirror the rhythm of Villon's lines. The resulting effect is a smooth readable and recitable text with little or no anachronism. The lines themselves are studied and balanced. Within S's constraints of having the lines deliver their own sense in their own metric frame, there are some surprisingly poetic moments. Readers who are looking for boldness and passionate licensed departures from frame during Villon's rough humorous moments may be disappointed. While capturing the different facets of Villon's irony or anger, S is more of a photographer than a painter. I would be quick to point out that this style comes not from a desire to play it safe, but from a passion for the text of the poetry, a passion born of knowledge and study, not of some pompous post modern paradigm.

To make some final points in this general comparison, the "Introduction" includes a short biography, which almost always distinguishes between documented and undocumented events, a discussion of the works with unprecedented attention to the "Poèmes Variés", and a critical introduction to the edition and translation. This introduction deals with the dozen Medieval and Renaissance sources S used, makes a distinction between those which she consulted directly and those which she consulted in photocopy or facsimile form. It is considerably more densely informa- tional than that of the other two translations. The bibliography which S presents (331-37)is the richest and most up to date I have seen in similar situations. The helpful andcomplete Index of Proper Names ([339]-46) is a feature lacking in in bot Bonner andKinnell. Another helpful and unique feature is the "Plan of Villon' Paris", on thetwo pages immediately following the "Table of Contents". Bonner's numbered endnotes at the end of his volume are sometimes difficult to locate. S's notes, marked with asterisks and more numerous that Bonner's, are set out immediately after their respective sections. Kinnell has nothing in the text or ranslation to alert readers of an explanatory note. Another unique feature about S's edition/translation is the varia lectio at the foot of of the page.

I took the care to look in some detail at the presentation of the Lais. First, there is an important stanza order difference in L between S, and Bonner, and Kinnell, which I will summarize for you numerically (S's L145-76 = L169-76 followed by L145-68 in the other translations). Though S has chosen a single base text in MS C, in order to have a "texte intégrale", she had to chose a controller source for L25-72 and 281-312. Rychner and Henry, the closest parallel to her text, chose MS A to control the first lacuna and MS. F for the second. As one might expect, L281-312, the very strange "entroublie" has provided the greatest number of variants. S has enhanced these differences by making this passage decidedly differently allegorical. To be precise, "l'Extimative" (L289), "La Perspective" (L290), "Similative, Formative" (L291), and "Le Sensitif" (L297) are given the status of allegorical figures, while "le sense" (L304) is transformed from allegorical figure to common noun. S' version of the "entroublie" also differs because of MS A. The simple variant "Mais" for "Dont" in L297, signals that the waking "Sensitif" (an allegorical figure by S's hand) is a kind of turning point in the action, where one power (Dame Memoir) stops waning and another (Imagination) takes over. The common noun "sensitif" coupled with "Dont" only sequences the this action with the last in the previous stanza.

I found that my reading of the manuscripts corresponded quite closely with that of S. I would disagree with her on her interpretation of L225-32, where she joins Rychner and Henry in making the whole stanza a bequest to the "pigons qui sont en l'essoyne". This first in a series of anonymous legatees is too insignificant to receive such a complex bequest. Also, there is strong evidence that L225 attempts to add to a bequest already in progress. However, this debate has been going on since its invention in the nineteenth century, and both sides of the argument have their merit.

Biographers have made much out of what Villon actually did that night "vers le noel". It has always surprised me at how little the variations in this story have caught a critical eye. MS A portrays a poet who's "entroublie" clearly changes direction at one point, and when, in the midst of that change (perhaps rim sleep), the poet returns to his senses, he completes his work:

C'estoit assés tartevelé
Pourtant, il me convint finer
L311- 12

whereas in MS F the poet claims that, unable to finish all he had intended to do, he went to sleep:

Si m'endormis, tout enmouflé,
Et ne peuz autrement finer
L311-12

Richer in text and critical resources than other currently available translations, Englished in appropriately idiomatic, though not anachronistically colloquial language, motored by anglophone rhythm patterns, S's book may well be seminal in renewing interest in the most famous of French medieval poets.


Robert D. Peckham , Editor
Department of Modern Foreign Languages
University of Tennessee at Martin
Martin, TN 38238 USA
E-mail: bobp@utm.edu

Colophon

Disclaimer: This document in no way represents the University of Tennessee at Martin. All opinions and errors are mine alone.
davagatw@mars.utm.edu
bobp@utm.edu