Instructions: For each of the following statements, indicate the (a) form of language and (b) function of language used.



“The time now is 3:00”

Answer: declarative form, informative function


1. “Look what I found with my metal detector!                                      

2. “Did you know that James K. Polk was the 11th President?”                                           

3. “Do you know that you’re yelling at me?”                                         

4. “Holy moly!”                                        

5. “Stop yelling at me!”                                      

6. “I’ve had it with you!”                                        

7. “You’re yelling at me!”                                       

8. “High five!”                                      

9. “Presto!”                                          

10. “The name of Christ compels you!”                                          




Instructions: Determine whether the following pairs of statements involve disputes about (1) fact, (2) verbiage, (3) value, or (4) some combination of these.



(a) “Joe is a good American since he votes in every election;” “No, Joe is a bad American since I saw him protesting in front of the court house”

Answer: disagreement value over political citizenry


1. (a) “He said he’d sell me his homework for $15”; (b) “no, he said $50”                        

2. (a) “He’s the most moving TV evangelist that I ever heard;” (b) “no he’s the most manipulative one that ever swindled you out of $500”                                                        

3. (a) “Look at that bum sleeping on a park bench”; (b) “that’s not a bum, that’s our beloved philosophy professor”                        

4. (a) “This is the campus that cares since everyone is so friendly;” (b) “no, the only thing this campus cares about is hiking tuition up to $5,000 a semester”                           

5. (a) “That disgusting mutt has fleas”; “no, that cute puppy has no fleas at all”                                                             

6. (a) “That was a great concert;” (b) “no it wasn’t, it was all banjo music”                                               

7. (a) “We have a good Church since each week people become saved;” (b) “no, what makes our church good is that it provides a caring community for all who join”                                                                        

8. (a) “I think I saw Fido’s spirit rise to heaven when he died;” (b) “no, Fido’s spirit only lives on in your memories”                                     

9. (a) “Stealing that bread was the right thing for me to do since it enabled me to survive;” (b) “no, stealing that bread was wrong since it’s always wrong to steal”                                               

10. (a) “The President is horrible since he neglects his primary responsibility to protect our civil liberties;” (b) “no, the President is great since he protects national security, which his true primary responsibility”                                                                  

11. (a) “Look, free ice cream!” (b) “there you go with the free will thing again; free will is an illusion, so the ice cream isn’t free, and, besides, that guy is giving away frozen yoghurt, not ice cream.”                                                                                                                        

12. (a) “Being vegan is irrational since you can’t eat anything that tastes good;” (b) “no, vegan meals taste great, but what’s irrational is eating animal products since, as I’ve argued with you, they are fundamentally unhealthy”                                                                                                   




Instructions: Determine whether the purposes of following definitions are lexical, precising, stipulative, theoretical, or persuasive.


1. "Cigarette" refers to a pinch of tobacco rolled in paper with fire at one end and a fool on the other             

2. “Contract” is a voluntary agreement between two or more parties, with the intention to create a legal obligations between them            

3. “Chair” is a separate seat for one person, typically with a back and four legs          

4. By “friend” I mean anyone who I have friended on Facebook              

5. “Metronome” is a device used by musicians that marks time at a selected rate by giving a regular tick          

6. “Phlogiston” is a hypothetical colorless, odorless, weightless substance once believed to be the combustible part of all flammable substances              

7. "Divorce" refers to the future tense of marriage             


Instructions: The following are examples of extensional and intensional definition techniques. If extensional, determine whether it is ostensive or enumerative. If intensional, determine whether it is synonymous, genus-difference, etymological, functional, or operational.


8. A “distinguished student” is one with a GPA of 3.50 or higher              

9. “Hallucination” is an imagined perception without basis of fact                   

10. The thing at the top of that pole is a flag                

11. A “janitor” is a person hired to clean buildings             

12. “Metaphysics” means beyond the physical in the original Greek               

13. “Shoe” means footwear             

14. “Humanities” means subjects like literature, history, philosophy, music, art              


Instructions: Using the five rules for definitions, determine what if anything is wrong with the following definitions.


15. “Man” is a bargaining animal                          

16. “Laughter” is the state of laughing           

17. “Root” is the part of a plant that grows underground            

18. “Dog” is a domesticated animal             

19. “House” is a building in which families live             

20. “Memory” is the tablet of the mind             

21. “Prudence” is the ballast of the moral vessel             

22. “Wisdom” is the avoidance of folly           

23. “Sickness” is a deficiency of health