LANGUAGE AND LOGIC RULES

 

Four grammatical forms of language

1. Declaratives: such and such is the case

2. Interrogatives: questions

3. Imperatives: commands, do X

4. Exclamatories: exclamations

Four functions of language

1. Informative (assertions): communicates information, affirms or denies propositions, presents arguments

2. Expressive (emotion): to vent or arouse feelings

3. Directive (command): to cause or prevent overt action

4. Performative: illocutionary acts where the words perform something

Four types of disputes

1. Dispute over facts

2. Verbal dispute

3. Value disputes

4. Combination disputes

Purposes of definitions

Lexical

Precising

Stipulative

Theoretical

Persuasive definition: designates meaning with the purpose of influencing attitudes

Definition Techniques

Extensional (denotative): indicates members that belong to a class of objects

Ostensive (demonstrative)

Enumerative

Intensional (connotative): indicating a set of commonly accepted characteristics

Synonymous

Genus and difference

Etymological

Functional

Operational

Five Rules of Good Lexical Definitions

1. Should state the essential attributes of the object

2. Must not be circular

3. Must be neither too broad nor too narrow

4. Must not be ambiguous or figurative

5. Should not be negative where it can be affirmative