Indian Boarding Schools: A Selected Bibliography


Earlene J. Moore, Paul Meek Library

for the fifth annual Civil Rights Conference held at the University of Tennessee at Martin, February 21–26, 2005.




 It’s cheaper to educate Indians than to kill them.

––Indian Commissioner Thomas Morgan, Phoenix Indian School, 1891


above quote from: Site access date 20 Jan 2005.


Classification numbers for materials available at the Paul Meek Library follow entries in bold type, and may be requested through Interlibrary Loan.  Please report errors or omissions to:



Books and Book Chapters


Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875–1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.


Adams, Evelyn Crady.  American Indian Education: Government Schools and Economic

Progress.  New York: Arno Press, 1971 [c1946].  E97 .A3 1971


Away from Home: American Indian Boarding School Experiences, 1879–2000.  ed. Margaret L. Archuleta.  Phoenix, Ariz.: The Heard Museum, 2004.  E97.5 .A93


Bloom, John.  To Show What An Indian Can Do: Sports at Native American Boarding Schools.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.  E98.G2 B56


Child, Brenda J.  “Boarding Schools,” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Frederick E. Hoxie, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996.  Access also: Site access date 1/20/2005.  Ref E76.2.E53


Child, Brenda J.  Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900–1940.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.


Coleman, Michael C.  American Indian Children at School, 1850–1930.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.  E97.5 .C64 1993eb


Ellis, Clyde.  To Change Them Forever: The Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians, 1880–1920.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.  E99.K5 E45 1996eb


Hoxie, Fredrick E.  A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.  E98.C89 H68


Szasz, Margaret Connell.  Education and the American Indian: The Road to Self-Determination since 1928. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974.  E97 .S92; 3rd edition E97 .S92 1999eb


Trennert, Robert A., Jr.  Phoenix Indian School: Forced Assimilation in Arizona, 1891–1935.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.  E97.6.P4 T74 1988eb



Media and Electronic sources


“Carlisle Indian Industrial School.”

Site access date 16 Feb 2005.

This site has extensive bibliographies of primary and secondary sources; it also gives a history of Carlisle Indian School. 


Childers, Niki, and Gayle Lawrence.  “Indian Boarding Schools: Civilizing the Native Spirit,” 2001. Site access date 16 Feb 2005.

This is a teacher lesson plan.


Cole, David E., Jordan Dill, et al. “Photographs from Indian Boarding Schools,” 5 June 2003.  Site access date 16 Feb 2005.


Healing the Hurts. Issaquah, Wash.: Phil Lucas Productions, 1989.



Lesiak, Christine. In the White Man's Image.  Lincoln, Nebr.: Distributed by NAPBC, 1992.  VIDEO 4218



Keohane, Sonja. “Let All that is Indian Within You Die!”  22 April 2004. Site access date 16 Feb 2005.





Adams, David Wallace.  “Schooling the Hopi: Federal Indian Policy Writ Small, 1887–1917.”  Pacific Historical Review 48, no. 3, (1979):335–356.


Barrett, Carole, and Marcia Wolter Britton.  “"You Didn't Dare Try to be Indian": Oral Histories of Former Indian Boarding School Students.” North Dakota History 64, no. 2, (1997):4–25.


Beiser, M.  “Hazard to Mental Health: Indian Boarding Schools.”  American Journal of Psychiatry 131 (1974):310–312.


Berg, S. Carol.  “Memories of an Indian Boarding School: White Earth, Minnesota, 1909–1945.” Midwest Review 11, (1989):27–36.


Bloom, John.  “’Show What an Indian Can Do’: Sports, Memory, and Ethnic Identity at                  Federal Indian Boarding Schools.  Journal of American Indian Education 35 (Spring   1996):33–48.


Chavis, Ben.  “Off–Reservation Boarding High Schools Teachers: How Are They Perceived by Former American Indian Students?”  Social Science Journal 36, no.1 (1999):33.


Child, Brenda.  “Runaway Boys, Resistant Girls: Rebellion at Flandreau and Haskell, 1900–1940.”  Journal of American Indian Education 35 (Spring 1996):49–57.


Collins, Cary C.  “The Broken Crucible of Assimilation: Forest Grove Indian School   and the Origins of Off–Reservation Boarding–School Education in the West.”  Oregon Historical Quarterly 101, no.4 (2000): 466–507.


Davis, Julie.  “American Indian Boarding School Experiences: Recent Studies from Native Perspectives.”  Magazine of History 15, no.2 (2001):20–22.

Accessible online:–America–28368


Dlugokinski, Eric, and Lyn Kramer.  “A System of Neglect: Indian Boarding Schools.”  American Journal of Psychiatry 131, no.6 (Jun 1974):670–673.


Ellis, Clyde.  “There Are So Many Things Needed: Establishing the Rainy Mountain Boarding School, 1891–1900.”  Chronicles of Oklahoma 72, no.4 (1994–95):414–439.


Goodburn, Amy.  “Literacy Practices at the Genoa Industrial Indian School.”  Great Plains Quarterly 19, no.1 (1999):35–52.


Grover, Linda LeGarde.  “From Assimilation to Termination: The Vermilion Lake Indian School.”  Minnesota History 58, no.4 (2002–2003):224–240.


Hamley, Jeffery.  “An Introduction to the Federal Indian Boarding School Movement.”  North Dakota History 61, no.2 (1994):2–9.


Hoerig, Karl A.  “Remembering our Indian School Days: The Boarding School Experience.”  American Anthropologist 104, no.2 (2002):642–646.

Hoxie, Frederick E.  “What’s Your Problem? New Work in Twentieth-Century Native American Ethnohistory.”  Ethnohistory 47, no.2 (2000):469–481.


Hultgren, Mary Lou, and Paulette Fairbanks Molin.  “Long Rides Across the Plains: Fort Berthold Students at Hampton Institute.”  North Dakota History 61, no.2 (1994):10–36.


Keller, Jean A.  “In the Fall of the Year we were Troubled with Some Sickness: Typhoid Fever Deaths, Sherman Institute, 1904.”  American Indian Culture and Research Journal 23, no.3 (1999):97–117.


Keller, Robert H., Jr.  “American Indian Education: An Historical Context.”  Journal of the West 13, no.2 (1974):75–82.


Lomawaima, K. Tsianina.  “Domesticity in the Federal Indian Schools: The Power of Authority Over Mind and Body.”  American Ethnologist 20, no.2 (May 1993): 227–240.


Lomawaima, K. Tsianina.  “Estelle Reel, Superintendent of Indian Schools, 1898–1910: Politics, Curriculum, and Land.”  Journal of American Indian Education 35 (Spring 1996):5–31.


Lomawaima, K. Tsianina.  “Oral Histories from Chilocco Indian Agricultural School, 1920–1940.”  American Indian Quarterly 11, no.3 (1987):241–254.


McBeth, Sally J.  “Indian Boarding Schools and Ethnic Identity: An Example from the Southern Plains Tribes of Oklahoma.” Plains Anthropologist 28, no.100 (1983):119–128.


McBeth, Sally J.  “The Primer and the Hoe.”  Natural History Magazine 93, no.8 (August 1984):4–12.


Metcalf, Ann.  “From Schoolgirl to Mother: The Effects of Education on Navajo Women.”  Social Problems 23, no.5 (1976):535–544.


Noel, Jana.  “Education Toward Cultural Shame: A Century of Native American Education.”  Educational Foundations 16, no.1 (Winter 2002):19–32.


“Oneida Boarding Schools: An Oral History.” Jensen, Kathy, comp. Voyageur: Northeast Wisconsin's Historical Review 12, no.2 (1996):34–40.


Reddick, SuAnn M.  “The Evolution of Chemawa Indian School: From Red River to Salem, 1825–1885.”  Oregon Historical Quarterly 101, no.4 (2000):444–465.


Riney, Scott.  “’I Like the School so I Want to Come Back’: The Enrollment of American Indian Students at the Rapid City Indian School.”  American Indian Culture and Research Journal 22, no.2 (1998):171–192.


Rubenstein, Bruce.  “To Destroy a Culture: Indian Education in Michigan, 1855–1900.”  Michigan History 60, no.2 (1976):137–160.


Smith, Maureen.  “Forever Changed: Boarding School Narratives of American Indian Identity in the U.S. and Canada.”  Indigenous Nations Studies Journal 2, no.2 (2001):57–82.


Szasz, Margaret Connell.  “Federal Boarding Schools and the Indian Child: 1920–1960.  South Dakota History 7, no.4 (1977):371–384.


Trennert, Robert A.  “Educating Indian Girls at Nonreservation Boarding Schools, 1878–1920.”  Western Historical Quarterly 13, no.3 (1982):271–290.


Wile, Ruby.  “Yakni Achukma, The School with a Soul: A History of the Goodland Indian Orphanage.”  Chronicles of Oklahoma 80, no.4 (2002–03):410–435.