Grammaire supplémentaire pour

These grammar links are coordinated with specific grammar sections in Jean-Luc Penfornis (Paris: CLE International, 2003), whose pages are stated in parentheses after the French name of numbered sections in the book's "Grammaire" appendix (98-113). In all cases, I have included pages references to exercises in the textbook lessons referring to these sections of the grammar appendix.  In each case, I have also included a few English word to describe or characterize the section.  Many of the links are to the outstanding and comprehensive "Tex's French Grammar" (Univ. of Texas), but there are links to other sites.  I have done this because I have found only an outline of grammatical topics with examples in the textbook.

1. L'expression de lieu (52, 98)
prepositions with place names

    prepositions with place names

    common prepositions

2. L'interrogation direct (7, 99)
information questions

    Interrogative constructions (all, choose relevant categories)

3.  L'expression de la quantité (8,  22, 40, 66, 100-101)
numbers, fractions, numerical expressions, indefinites, partitive articles

    expressions of quantity



4. Les pronoms compléments (11, 27,  49, 102)
direct and indirect object pronouns and their placement

    direct object pronouns

    indirect pronouns

    pronoun "y"

    pronoun "en"

5. Le passé composé et l'imparfait (21, 103)
formation and mixed use

    passé composé with avoir

    passé composé with être

    passé composé of pronominal verbs

    imparfait: formation

    imparfait: states of being, habitual actions

    imparfait: idiomatic uses (suggestions, wishes, depuis, venir de)

    narration: passé composé vs. imparfait

6. L'expression du temps (24, 104)
prepositions, some relative pronouns

    il y a, ago

    depuis vs. il y a ... que, ça fait ... que, voilà ... que

    depuis with imperfect

    depuis, pendant, pour

    La proposition temporelle

7. Le discours indirect (55, 76, 105)
from direct to indirect discourse and visa versa

    French Direct and Indirect Speech

    Direct and Indirect Discourse

8. Les pronoms relatifs (12, 34, 106)
simple, antecedentless,  and compound relative pronouns

    relative pronouns: qui and que

    relative pronouns: ce qui and ce que

    relative pronouns: dont, ce dont, où, lequel

9. Le Subjonctif (43, 85, 107)
use, formation and where to use

    regular subjunctive formation

    irregular subjunctive formation

    usage: obligation

    usage: doubt

    usage: will, emotion, desire

    conjunctions that take the subjunctive

    past subjunctive


10. L'expression de la comparaison, de la condition, de l'hytothèse (37, 51, 64, 108)
comparison of quantity & quality, superlative, if sentences, conjonctions +subjunctive or conditional, preposition + infinitive, gerund

    comparison of adjectives

    superlative of adjectives

    comparison and superlative of adverbs

    bon/meilleur (adjectives) vs. bien/mieux (adverbs)

    si clauses

    La proposition conditionnelle

    present participle

11. L'expression de la cause, de la conséquence  (68, 109)
because,  because of, so...that, thus, etc.

    Conjunctions of Conclusion


    La proposition causale


12. L'expression de but, de l'opposition, de la concession (70, 81, 83, 110)
conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs, coordinates, other expressions

    Expressing opposition and concession

    conjunctions that take the subjunctive

    La proposition concessive

13. Tableaux des conjugasions (29,  38, 111-113)
50 regular and irregular verbs (infinitive, past participle, present indicative, present subjunctive, future)

    Le Conjugueur